Abscess, Breast


Article Author:
Ariel Toomey


Article Editor:
Steve Bhimji



Managing Editors:
Frank Smeeks
Scott Dulebohn
Scott Dulebohn
Erin Hughes
Pritesh Sheth
S Plantz
Steve Bhimji
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Richard Ciresi
Tammy Toney-Butler
Phillip Hynes


Updated:
8/15/2018 6:33:33 PM

Introduction

Breast infections are divided into lactational and non-lactational, or puerperal and nonpuerperal categories. They can be associated with the superficial skin or an underlying lesion. Breast abscesses are more common in lactating women but do occur in nonlactating women as well. It is important to rule out more serious pathology like breast cancer when a non-lactational patient presents with signs and symptoms of breast abscess. The vast majority of these infections occur in females, but they can occur in males as well. Diagnosis and treatment for breast abscesses are not difficult, but there is a high rate of recurrence.[1][2][3]

Etiology

Lactational breast abscesses are most often caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcal species, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is becoming increasingly common. Typically, non-lactational breast abscesses are a result of a mixed flora with S. aureus, Streptococcus, and anaerobic bacteria.[4][5]

Epidemiology

Lactation is the most common association with breast infections, present in 10% to 33% of these women. Lactational mastitis is present in 2% to 3% of lactating women, and 5% to 11% of these patients may develop an abscess. This is most common in women of childbearing age, with a mean age of 32 years. Nonlactating breast abscesses have a wider age range, with a peak incidence in the fourth decade of life. There is a strong association with diabetes and smoking with non-lactational breast abscesses. Obese patients and African Americans have a greater incidence of breast abscess. Nipple piercings have also been associated with subareolar breast abscesses in the nonlactating population.[6]

Pathophysiology

To understand the pathophysiology of breast abscesses, you must understand the anatomy of the breast. The breast contains breast lobules, each of which drains to a lactiferous duct, which in turn empties to the surface of the nipple. There are lactiferous sinuses which are reservoirs for milk during lactation. The lactiferous ducts undergo epidermalization where keratin production may cause the duct to become obstructed, and in turn, can result in abscess formation. Abscesses associated with lactation usually begin with an abrasion or tissue at the nipple, providing an entry point for bacteria. The infection often presents in the second postpartum week and is often precipitated in the presence of milk stasis. The most common organism known to cause a breast abscess is S. aureus, but in some cases, Streptococci, and Staphylococcus epidermidis may also be involved. Women are encouraged to continue breastfeeding or using a breast pump to continue draining milk from the affected ducts.[7]

History and Physical

The patient will usually provide a history of breast pain, erythema, warmth, and possibly edema. Patients may provide lactation history. It is important to ask about any history of prior breast infections and the previous treatment. Patients may also complain of fever, nausea, vomiting, purulent drainage from the nipple or site of erythema. It is also important to ask about the patient's medical history, including diabetes.

On exam, the patient will have erythema, induration, warmth, and tenderness to palpation at the site in question. It may feel like there is a palpable mass or area of fluctuance. There may be purulent discharge at the nipple or site of fluctuance. The patient may also have reactive axillary adenopathy. The patient may have a fever or tachycardia on the exam, although these are less common.

Evaluation

The cornerstone of diagnosis of a breast abscess is the physical exam. A complete blood count may be obtained to evaluate for leukocytosis, but it is not necessary. If there is any frank drainage, cultures can be obtained to help guide antibiotic treatment. A breast ultrasound may be obtained if there is a question of cellulitis versus abscess, to evaluate for a drainable fluid collection. On ultrasound, abscesses may appear as ill-defined masses with internal septations.

Treatment / Management

Incision and drainage are the standard of care for breast abscesses. If the patient is seen in a primary care setting by a provider that is not comfortable in performing these procedures, the patient may be started on antibiotics and referred to a general surgeon for definitive treatment. Needle aspiration may be attempted for abscesses smaller than 3 cm or in lactational abscesses. Non-lactational abscesses have a higher rate of recurrence and often require multiple drainage procedures. Incision and drainage have lower recurrence rates, but they are more invasive than needle aspiration and may lead to scarring and possible poor cosmesis. If there is a recurrence of an abscess after needle aspiration, incision and drainage should be performed. If there is a large cavity follow incision and drainage, packing of the cavity may be done to promote further drainage and prevent the skin incision from healing before drainage is complete. Typically, these wounds heal fairly quickly. If the cause of the abscess is an obstructed or ectatic lactiferous duct, surgical excision may be necessary.[2][8]

A course of antibiotics may be given before or following drainage of breast abscesses. There are many options for treatment, and consideration must be given to the possible pathogens involved based on the patient's history. It is also important to consider if the patient is breastfeeding and whether the antibiotics given are safe in breastfeeding patients. Cultures should be obtained to guide antibiotic therapy, especially in recurrent breast abscesses. Some of the antibiotics to be considered are nafcillin, unasyn, augmentin, doxycycline, bactrim, clindamycin, vancomycin.

Patients with large breast abscesses or signs of sepsis should be considered for admission to the hospital. Large breast abscesses may need incision and drainage in the operating room, packing of the wound for healing by secondary intention, and possibly intravenous antibiotics.

Pain control with NSAIDs and/or prescription narcotics should also be considered.

Postoperative and Rehabilitation Care

Once the breast abscess is drained, the pain will quickly subside. Some patients may need NSAIDs for pain. In addition, one can apply a warm compress to soothe the inflammation and use moisturizer to prevent cracking of the nipples.

Consultations

  • Radiologist
  • Surgeon
  • Lactation Nurse

Deterrence and Patient Education

The patient should be educated on nipple and hand hygiene and prevent engorgement of the breast.

Pearls and Other Issues

Patients may have recurrent or chronic infections, which can lead to chronic pain and scarring. In nonlactating women presenting with signs or symptoms of non-resolving breast abscess, a high index of suspicion for inflammatory breast cancer should be present. Patients should also be screened for new-onset diabetes.

Neonatal mastitis occurs in term or near-term infants. It is twice as common in females, and approximately 50% of these cases progress to breast abscess formation.

Other causes of breast abscesses include infected sebaceous cysts and hidradenitis suppurative, have specific evaluation and treatment.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

There is no longer any question that breastfeeding has many health benefits for both the mother and the infant. In fact, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and if possible, continue breastfeeding to age 18 months. Unfortunately, many women stop breastfeeding in the postpartum period because of the development of breast abscesses. The treatment of a breast abscess is usually with antibiotics, image-based aspiration, or incision and drainage.[9]

While a breast abscess may sound like a trivial localized infection, there are no standard guidelines on its management. With the specialization of breast surgeons, many patients are needlessly admitted to the hospital and undergo unnecessary surgical procedures. Further, because of the nonuniformity in management, recurrence rates of breast abscess are also high. Because of nonuniformity in managing these patients, the outcomes also vary. [10] [1]  To lower health care costs and reduce the morbidity of unnecessary surgery, it is recommended that a streamlined approach with several types of healthcare professionals involved. The use of an interprofessional team should include the following:

  • A radiologist to make the diagnosis and perhaps aspirate the abscess
  • Consult with a general surgeon on the management of a multiloculated abscess
  • Infectious disease and pharmacist consultation to determine the choice of antibiotics
  • Lactation nurse to educate the patient on nipple hygiene, hand washing, and preventing engorgement of the breast

Outcomes and Evidence-based Medicine

Because of the heterogeneity in management methods of breast abscess, there is in fact not enough data to state if needle aspiration is a better option than incision and drainage for a breast abscess. It is not known if an antibiotic should always be administered to women undergoing incision and drainage or aspiration. The few case series available reveal that the outcome for most women is excellent with any of these methods, but it is not known which is superior. However, with all three methods, recurrence of breast abscess is common. Thus, it is highly recommended that a standardized interprofessional approach be developed to manage breast abscess, lower the rates of recurrence, and improve outcomes.

With the lack of evidence-based medicine, it is important to err on the side of aspiration and prevent the empirical prescribing of antibiotics. Surgery should only be a last resort option in complex cases.[9][7]

 


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Abscess, Breast - Questions

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A 65-year-old female has a 2-cm mass in her left breast. A fine needle aspiration was done, but the results were inconclusive. Two months later, the patient returns with the same mass, which appears unchanged. What is the next step in her management?



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Which of the following is true about a benign breast mass in a 28-year-old female?



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A 33-year-old presents to you with a palpable 2 cm breast mass. She claims she has had it for 2 months. What is the best INITIAL approach to managing this mass?



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A 28-year-old adult female presents with a 2 cm hard mass in her right breast and no other symptoms. What is the next step in her investigation?



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Which statement concerning pathology results of core needle biopsy is true?



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Which of the following is true regarding tomosynthesis, an adjunct to digital breast mammography?



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What is the most common pathophysiology of a breast abscess?



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What is the most common organism associated with a breast abscess?



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Which of the following statements regarding breast abscess is false?



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Abscess, Breast - References

References

Patani N,MacAskill F,Eshelby S,Omar A,Kaura A,Contractor K,Thiruchelvam P,Curtis S,Main J,Cunningham D,Hogben K,Al-Mufti R,Hadjiminas DJ,Leff DR, Best-practice care pathway for improving management of mastitis and breast abscess. The British journal of surgery. 2018 Jul 11     [PubMed]
Rao R,Ludwig K,Bailey L,Berry TS,Buras R,Degnim A,Fayanju OM,Froman J,Golesorkhi N,Greenburg C,Ma AT,Mautner SK,Krontiras H,Sowden M,Wexelman B,Landercasper J, Select Choices in Benign Breast Disease: An Initiative of the American Society of Breast Surgeons for the American Board of Internal Medicine Choosing Wisely{sup}®{/sup} Campaign. Annals of surgical oncology. 2018 Jul 2     [PubMed]
Zhang Y,Zhou Y,Mao F,Guan J,Sun Q, Clinical characteristics, classification and surgical treatment of periductal mastitis. Journal of thoracic disease. 2018 Apr     [PubMed]
Leung SS, Breast pain in lactating mothers. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi. 2016 Aug     [PubMed]
Agrawal S,Yadav VS,Srivastava A,Kapil A,Dhawan B, Breast abscess due to {i}Salmonella paratyphi{/i} A : Case reports with review of literature. Intractable     [PubMed]
Meretoja T,Ihalainen H,Leidenius M, Inflammations of the mammary gland. Duodecim; laaketieteellinen aikakauskirja. 2017     [PubMed]
Saboo A,Bennett I, Trends in non-lactation breast abscesses in a tertiary hospital setting. ANZ journal of surgery. 2017 Oct 18     [PubMed]
Li J, Diagnosis and Treatment of 75 Patients with Idiopathic Lobular Granulomatous Mastitis. Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research. 2018 Jan 30     [PubMed]
David M,Handa P,Castaldi M, Predictors of outcomes in managing breast abscesses-A large retrospective single-center analysis. The breast journal. 2018 May 20     [PubMed]
Irusen H,Rohwer AC,Steyn DW,Young T, Treatments for breast abscesses in breastfeeding women. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2015 Aug 17     [PubMed]

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