Female Urinary Retention


Article Author:
Joseph Dougherty


Article Editor:
Prashanth Rawla


Editors In Chief:
Stephen Leslie
Karim Hamawy


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Steve Bhimji
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Tehmina Warsi


Updated:
6/30/2019 2:02:16 PM

Introduction

Urinary retention is one of the most prevalent urological complaints resulting in patients presenting to the emergency department.  It is the inability to pass urine and can be acute or chronic.  Typically, diagnosis is via a high post-void residual; post-void residual measurement is by using a bladder scanner or ultrasound to estimate the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urinating.  Urinary retention presents much more commonly in men than in women due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.  Two of the most common causes in women of chronic urinary retention are bladder muscle dysfunction and obstruction.[1][2][3][4]

Etiology

Common causes of urinary retention, both acute and chronic, include but are not limited to medications, nerve injury during surgery, cystotomy during surgery, obstruction (vaginal hematoma, vaginal packing, sling, urethral foreign body, pelvic organ prolapse, urethral injury, constipation, failure of pelvic floor relaxation). Medications commonly used during and after surgery can cause urinary retention including atropine, glycopyrrolate, bupivacaine, etc.  The addition of opioids for post-operative pain can further exacerbate retention.[5][1][6][7]

Epidemiology

As stated above, urinary retention is rare in women and much more common in men due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  There are an estimated 3 cases per 100000 women every year, and the female to male ratio is 1 to 13. Compare this with men where about one-third over the age of 80 will have acute urinary retention.[8]

Pathophysiology

Voluntary urination requires coordination between muscles in the pelvic floor, bladder, and urethra and the nerves that innervate them.  Any disruption along the pathway can cause urinary retention.  Even if this pathway is coordinating and working properly, mechanical obstruction along this pathway will also cause urinary retention. Obstruction can result from the urethral channel undergoing narrowing or possessing increased muscle tone.  Neurological impairment can be due to incomplete relaxation of the urinary sphincter, inefficient detrusor muscle contraction, spinal cord infarction/demyelination, epidural abscess, epidural metastasis, Guillain-Barre, neuropathy, stroke, or trauma to the spinal cord. Trauma to the lower GU tract such as the pelvis or urethra can also cause obstruction.  Obstruction in women may result from constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic masses, or kidney stones. A urinary tract infection can cause swelling or inflammation of the urethra; this can cause compression of the urethra and lead to urinary retention.[9][10][11][12]

History and Physical

History and physical should focus on any history of urinary retention and symptoms involving the lower genitourinary (GU) tract such as discomfort with urination, hematuria, urethral discharge, foul smell to the urine, or lower abdominal pain. The patient should also be questioned about previous trauma, surgeries, or radiation to the pelvic and GU area.  To evaluate possible other causes in certain patient populations, whether the patient has a history of back pain, fever, IV drug use, or other neurological symptoms could point to serious causes of the urinary retention.  All medications including OTC, prescription, and herbal should be reviewed to determine whether side effects of these could be causing the urinary retention. [13][14]Physical exam should include at least lower abdominal palpation, rectal exam, pelvic exam, and neurological exam.  On palpation of the lower abdomen, the patient may have discomfort or the bladder may be palpable. On rectal exam, you want to check for masses, fecal impaction, perineal sensation, and sphincter tone.  The pelvic exam could reveal tumors, urethral diverticulum, cystocele, rectocele, etc. as the cause of retention. A neurological exam could also reveal other deficits that may pinpoint where the lesion may be.[15][16][17]

Evaluation

A urinalysis and culture is necessary for all patients with urinary retention.  This urine may have to be obtained via catheterization if the patient is unable to voluntarily void.  Other lab work, imaging, and tests should be ordered based on the provider's suspicion for the cause of retention, history, and physical exam findings.  The diagnosis of urinary retention is commonly made via obtaining a post void residual.  If the patient can void on her own, a bladder scan is utilized after the patient urinates to evaluate the amount of urine still in the bladder.  More than 300 mL of urine in the bladder after voiding suggests urinary retention.[18]  If the patient is unable to urinate, catheter placement may necessary.  If more than 400 mL of urine passes after catheterization in the first 15 minutes, this suggests urinary retention and the catheter may remain in place.  Between volumes of 200 mL and 400 mL, the catheter may be removed immediately or left in place depending on the clinical scenario.  Under 200 mL, the catheter can be removed, and urinary retention is unlikely.[8][19][20]

Treatment / Management

Once the physician has determined the diagnosis of urinary retention, they should perform bladder decompression via catheterization. In patients who are not able to void at all specialists prefer urinary catheterization, but one can also perform suprapubic catheterization if there are contraindications to urethral catheterization.  Contraindications to urethral catheterization include recent urological surgery.  If the patient requires suprapubic catheterization, someone trained in the procedure should perform the procedure.[21][10][22]  Whether a urinary catheter remains in place is determined by the clinical scenario.  If the physician determines the cause of retention to resolve relatively quickly, the patient can be taught how to straight cath themselves intermittently and discharged home.  If the patient cannot straight cath themselves for any reason, or the cause is thought to be ongoing, the catheter should remain in place.  Most patients with urinary retention are manageable as an outpatient.  Indications for admission include sepsis caused by the retention, malignancy as the cause of obstruction, acute myelopathy, or acute renal failure.[8][23]

Differential Diagnosis

Causes are of urinary retention and conditions that may mimic urinary retention include but are not limited to obstruction at any point along the lower GU tract or nerve dysfunction. A blockage may result from pelvic masses, constipation, urethral stone, infection-causing urethral inflammation and stenosis, urethral diverticulum and neurological dysfunction.[24]

Prognosis

Prognosis of urinary retention is fair if recognized early and treated promptly. Some of the complications which can occur with prolonged urinary retention are renal insufficiency, urinary tract infections, and injury to the upper tracts.[6][8][25][26]

Complications

Complications of urinary retention include but are not limited to acute kidney injury and urinary tract infection.  There are also complications with catheterization, both suprapubic and urethral.  Both can result in infection. Urethral catheterization can result in urethral injury during insertion.  Suprapubic catheterization can result in trauma to the bladder/colon and overlying skin infection.[23][27]

Another important complication seen in clinical practice is post-obstructive diuresis. This phenomenon is characterized by excretion of large amounts of salt and water once the obstruction resolves; this may be a normal physiological response to the obstruction, but physicians should keep a close eye on patients as some continue to excrete large amounts of urine and are at risk for dehydration and metabolic abnormalities.[28]

Consultations

Further testing and evaluation depend on physical exam findings such as gynecology for vaginal defects, neurosurgery for spinal trauma, urology for urodynamic studies.[8]

Deterrence and Patient Education

Urinary retention is the inability to pass urine and can be acute or chronic. Although uncommon in women when compared to men, sill this can lead to significant issues like not urinating at all when the problem is not recognized early. Patients should speak with their doctors if they have any issues urinating, dribbling of urine intermittently, foul smell of urine. Patients should also be aware of medications which can cause urinary retention.[1][6][8][20]

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Diagnosis and treatment of urinary retention need a multidisciplinary team effort. Primary care physicians, emergency department physicians, and hospitalists should be able to recognize the early signs and symptoms of urinary retention. Nurses should monitor the urine output in hospitalized patients and report to physicians if they notice a decrease or complete absence of urine output. Consultation with urologist might be warranted in advanced cases. Pharmacists also have a role in recognizing the medications which can cause urinary retention.[3][4][8] Unfortunately, despite optimal treatment, recurrence of urinary retention is common.


Interested in Participating?

We are looking for contributors to author, edit, and peer review our vast library of review articles and multiple choice questions. In as little as 2-3 hours you can make a significant contribution to your specialty. In return for a small amount of your time, you will receive free access to all content and you will be published as an author or editor in eBooks, apps, online CME/CE activities, and an online Learning Management System for students, teachers, and program directors that allows access to review materials in over 500 specialties.

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor

This is an academic project designed to provide inexpensive peer-reviewed Apps, eBooks, and very soon an online CME/CE system to help students identify weaknesses and improve knowledge. We would like you to consider being an author or editor. Please click here to learn more. Thank you for you for your interest, the StatPearls Publishing Editorial Team.

Female Urinary Retention - Questions

Take a quiz of the questions on this article.

Take Quiz
A 65-year-old female presents to her primary care provider with complaints of difficulty urinating and episodes of loss of urine intermittently. She says that her problems started 5 years ago and now are at the point that it is affecting her daily activities. Her past medical history includes hypertension for which she takes hydrochlorothiazide and lisinopril and diabetes mellitus type 2 which was diagnosed 20 years ago. Initially, she was on pills for a few years but now on an insulin regimen for the last 15 years for better control of her diabetes. She smoked for a couple of years during her college days but was never a heavy smoker and has not smoked since last 30 years. Vitals signs show blood pressure of 140/80 mmHg, heart rate of 78 bpm, a temperature of 98.9 F, and saturating 97% on room air. Physical exam reveals an obese female with a BMI of 31. Pelvic examination shows a moderate cystocele in this patient. A recent hemoglobin A1C of this patient from her last visit 6 months back was 8.7%. Post-voiding catheterization is done, and it shows 850 ml of urine. Urine is sent for urinalysis which shows clear urine with zero WBC, negative for nitrite and leukocyte esterase, no bacteria, +1 protein, no blood in the urine. Which of the following problems is the most likely cause of the patient's urinary symptoms?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A 45-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension and diabetes presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle collision. she complains of not able to urinate since the last few hours post-collision. She complains of excruciating pain in the suprapubic area and is very restless. Her vital signs on presentation were a blood pressure of 156/85 mmHg, HR 90 beats per minute, temp of 98.7 F and oxygen saturation of 96% on room air. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis is done which shows a pelvic fracture and possible urethral trauma. No evidence of any retroperitoneal hemorrhage is seen. CT scan does show a grossly distended urinary bladder. A bedside bladder ultrasound is done which shows 1200 cc of urine in the bladder. What is the next best step in the management of this patient?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
An 85-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension presents to the emergency department with difficulty urinating for the past 12 hours. She also complains of fullness in her lower abdomen. Her current medications are lisinopril and simvastatin. She does mention that recently she had a runny nose and cold-like symptoms and she went to her primary care provider who prescribed her azithromycin and a corticosteroid taper. She also has been taking OTC cold medications to treat her symptoms which have improved. Her temperature is 98.4°F, pulse is 80/min, respirations are 16/min and blood pressure is 120/84 mm Hg. Blood work shows hemoglobin 12.3 g/dL, leukocyte count 6,400/mm3, and creatinine 0.8 mg/dL. Urinalysis shows 1-5 WBC, nitrite negative, leukocyte esterase negative, no bacteria. Physical examination reveals pressure like sensation on palpation of the lower abdominal area. Bedside ultrasound is done and shows about 700 ml of urine and a distended bladder. Straight catheterization is done which relieve the patient’s symptoms. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A 45-year-old female presents to the emergency department with complaints of difficulty urinating for the past 12 hours. Initially, she was able to urinate a bit but was feeling full after urinating and was going to the bathroom frequently to empty her bladder. Now she is not able to urinate at all for the last 2 hours. She has pain and discomfort in her lower abdomen and is not able to sit still in the examination room. Her past medical history includes hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and seasonal allergies. She has a history of undisplaced pelvic fracture after motor vehicle collision ten years ago, but she did not have any complications. Family history is significant with a cousin who has multiple sclerosis. She is on amlodipine for her hypertension, atorvastatin for her hyperlipidemia and takes diphenhydramine frequently for her seasonal allergies. Vital signs show blood pressure of 130/70 mmHg, heart rate of 98 bpm, a temperature of 97.9 F, and SaO2 is 96% on room air. Physical exam reveals a distended bladder. A straight catheterization is done with drainage of 900 ml of clear yellow urine with immediate relief to her symptoms. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her urinary retention?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up

Female Urinary Retention - References

References

Cheung F,Sandhu JS, Voiding Dysfunction After Non-urologic Pelvic Surgery. Current urology reports. 2018 Aug 6     [PubMed]
Polat M,Şentürk MB,Pulatoğlu Ç,Doğan O,Kılıççı Ç,Budak MŞ, Postpartum urinary retention: Evaluation of risk factors. Turkish journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2018 Jun     [PubMed]
Marinkovic SP,Ford JC, Improving clinical outcomes for women with overactive bladder or urinary retention symptoms: a comparison of motor response voltages (1-9 V) during Stage 1 sacral neuromodulation. BJU international. 2018 Sep     [PubMed]
Justo D,Schwartz N,Dvorkin E,Gringauz I,Groutz A, Asymptomatic urinary retention in elderly women upon admission to the Internal Medicine department: A prospective study. Neurourology and urodynamics. 2017 Mar     [PubMed]
Sungur M,Baykam M,Calışkan S,Lokman U, Urethral calculi: A rare cause of acute urinary retention in women. Turkish journal of emergency medicine. 2018 Dec     [PubMed]
He H,Tang C,Yi X,Zhou W, Herpes zoster-induced acute urinary retention: Two cases and literature review. Nigerian journal of clinical practice. 2018 Apr     [PubMed]
Prattley S,Voss J,Cheung S,Geraghty R,Jones P,Somani BK, Ureteroscopy and stone treatment in the elderly (≥70 years): prospective outcomes over 5- years with a review of literature. International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology. 2018 Jul-Aug     [PubMed]
Marshall JR,Haber J,Josephson EB, An evidence-based approach to emergency department management of acute urinary retention. Emergency medicine practice. 2014 Jan     [PubMed]
Anim-Somuah M,Smyth RM,Cyna AM,Cuthbert A, Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia for pain management in labour. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2018 May 21     [PubMed]
Valentini FA,Marti BG,Robain G, Do urodynamics provide a better understanding of voiding disorders in women over 80? Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie. 2018 Mar     [PubMed]
Schwertner-Tiepelmann N,Hagedorn-Wiesner A,Erschig C,Beilecke K,Schwab F,Tunn R, Clinical relevance of neurological evaluation in patients suffering urinary retention in the absence of subvesical obstruction. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2017 Nov     [PubMed]
Verzotti G,Fenner V,Wirth G,Iselin CE, [Acute urinary retention: a mechanical or functional emergency]. Revue medicale suisse. 2016 Nov 30     [PubMed]
Brock C,Olesen SS,Olesen AE,Frøkjaer JB,Andresen T,Drewes AM, Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology and management. Drugs. 2012 Oct 1     [PubMed]
Yates A, Urinary continence care for older people in the acute setting. British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing). 2017 May 11     [PubMed]
Zahid AS,Mubashir A,Mirza SA,Naqvi IH,Talib A, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Nephritis: A Case Report. Cureus. 2018 Apr 1     [PubMed]
Manjunath AS,Hofer MD, Urologic Emergencies. The Medical clinics of North America. 2018 Mar     [PubMed]
Ugare UG,Bassey IA,Udosen EJ,Essiet A,Bassey OO, Management of lower urinary retention in a limited resource setting. Ethiopian journal of health sciences. 2014 Oct     [PubMed]
Chang SJ,Yang SS,Chiang IN, Large voided volume suggestive of abnormal uroflow pattern and elevated post-void residual urine. Neurourology and urodynamics. 2011 Jan     [PubMed]
Özveren B,Keskin S, Presentation and prognosis of female acute urinary retention: Analysis of an unusual clinical condition in outpatients. Urology annals. 2016 Oct-Dec     [PubMed]
Daurat A,Choquet O,Bringuier S,Charbit J,Egan M,Capdevila X, Diagnosis of Postoperative Urinary Retention Using a Simplified Ultrasound Bladder Measurement. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2015 May     [PubMed]
Wang R,Soeteman DI,Hacker MR,Lefevre R, Cost-effectiveness of Routine Postoperative Retrograde Voiding Trials Following Pelvic Surgeries. Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery. 2018 May 22     [PubMed]
Prieto J,Murphy CL,Moore KN,Fader M, WITHDRAWN: Intermittent catheterisation for long-term bladder management. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2017 Aug 8     [PubMed]
Chapman GC,Sheyn D,Petrikovets A,Mahajan ST,El-Nashar S,Pollard R,Mangel JM, Tamsulosin to Prevent Postoperative Urinary Retention After Female Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery. Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery. 2018 Nov 9     [PubMed]
Chern BZH,Rajaraman S,Verma G,Heng KWJ, Unusual case of acute urinary retention in a young female. BMJ case reports. 2017 Oct 4     [PubMed]
Declemy A,Chesnel C,Charlanes A,Le Breton F,Ismael SS,Amarenco G, Specificity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Neuromyelitis Optica in Comparison With Multiple Sclerosis Patients. International neurourology journal. 2018 Sep     [PubMed]
Čadková I,Huvar I, [Vaginal reconstruction for the remedy of pelvic organ prolapse: the effect, influence on urinary and sexual function and quality of life in two-years follow-up Part II - Urinary tract: function and complications]. Ceska gynekologie. Summer 2018     [PubMed]
Scott AJ,Mason SE,Langdon AJ,Patel B,Mayer E,Moorthy K,Purkayastha S, Prospective Risk Factor Analysis for the Development of Post-operative Urinary Retention Following Ambulatory General Surgery. World journal of surgery. 2018 Dec     [PubMed]
Nyman MA,Schwenk NM,Silverstein MD, Management of urinary retention: rapid versus gradual decompression and risk of complications. Mayo Clinic proceedings. 1997 Oct     [PubMed]

Disclaimer

The intent of StatPearls is to provide practice questions and explanations to assist you in identifying and resolving knowledge deficits. These questions and explanations are not intended to be a source of the knowledge base of all of medicine, nor is it intended to be a board or certification review of Surgery-Urologic. The authors or editors do not warrant the information is complete or accurate. The reader is encouraged to verify each answer and explanation in several references. All drug indications and dosages should be verified before administration.

StatPearls offers the most comprehensive database of free multiple-choice questions with explanations and short review chapters ever developed. This system helps physicians, medical students, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals identify education deficits and learn new concepts. StatPearls is not a board or certification review system for Surgery-Urologic, it is a learning system that you can use to help improve your knowledge base of medicine for life-long learning. StatPearls will help you identify your weaknesses so that when you are ready to study for a board or certification exam in Surgery-Urologic, you will already be prepared.

Our content is updated continuously through a multi-step peer review process that will help you be prepared and review for a thorough knowledge of Surgery-Urologic. When it is time for the Surgery-Urologic board and certification exam, you will already be ready. Besides online study quizzes, we also publish our peer-reviewed content in eBooks and mobile Apps. We also offer inexpensive CME/CE, so our content can be used to attain education credits while you study Surgery-Urologic.