Amoxicillin


Article Author:
Bobak Akhavan


Article Editor:
Praveen Vijhani


Editors In Chief:
Dustin Constant
Donald Kushner


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Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
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Radia Jamil
Patrick Le
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Hussain Sajjad
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Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes


Updated:
3/7/2019 9:36:29 AM

Indications

Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino group to penicillin, with the goal of battling antibiotic resistance. Amoxicillin covers a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria, with some added gram-negative coverage compared to penicillin. Similar to penicillin, it covers most Streptococcus species and has improved coverage of Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus. It also has coverage over Haemophilus influenzae, some Escherichia coli, Actinomyces, Clostridial species, Salmonella, Shigella, and Corynebacteria

Amoxicillin is FDA approved for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections, ear, nose, and throat infections, lower respiratory tract infections, Helicobacter pylori infections, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and skin and skin structure infections. It is recommended as the first-line treatment by Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and as one of the treatments for community-acquired pneumonia[1]. For this, it is often in combination with a macrolide antibiotic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends its use for post-exposure prophylaxis for anthrax inhalation[2]. It also has other off-label uses, such as erysipeloid, Lyme disease (if doxycycline is contraindicated), and infectious endocarditis prophylaxis, as well as prophylaxis in patients with prosthetic joints undergoing dental procedures. It can be effective in periodontitis in combination with metronidazole and is one of the first-line treatments for group A streptococcus pharyngitis.

Mechanism of Action

Amoxicillin is in the class of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams act by binding to penicillin-binding proteins that inhibit a process called transpeptidation, leading to activation of autolytic enzymes in the bacterial cell wall. This leads to lysis of the cell wall, and thus, the destruction of the bacterial cell. This type of killing is referred to bactericidal killing.

Amoxicillin can also be administered in combination with a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Some examples of these are clavulanic acid and sulbactam. These beta-lactamase inhibitors work by binding irreversibly to the catalytic site of an organism’s penicillinase enzyme, which causes resistance to the original beta-lactam ring. These drugs do not have inherent bactericidal activity; however, when coupled with amoxicillin, may broaden spectrum amoxicillin to organisms that produce the penicillinase enzyme[3].

Administration

Bactericidal antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, often are most effective in a “time-dependent” manner, rather than a “concentration-dependent” manner. Time-dependent refers to the time that serum concentrations exceed the minimum-inhibitor-concentration for the microorganism. Therefore, they are often dosed more frequently, rather than the concentration-dependent drugs, which can be dosed, for example, daily. The more “around-the-clock” dosing provides less variation in peak and trough serum levels.

Amoxicillin is an oral antibiotic; whereas, ampicillin can be given orally, intravenously, or intramuscularly. Amoxicillin comes in immediate release or extended-release tablets. It also comes in a chewable or a suspension. If given in suspension, it may be mixed and administered with formula, milk, water, fruit juice, ginger ale, or other cold drinks. It should be administered immediately after mixing. Extended-release tablets should not be crushed and should be administered within 1 hour after finishing a meal. Amoxicillin is sometimes preferred over penicillin in children because of its taste.

It is important to note that it is excreted by in the majority of people by the kidney, and some renal adjustment and extra caution may be needed for renal insufficiency. It is reported to be partially dialyzable, and therefore, immediate-release tablets can be considered for dosing after hemodialysis. There are no guidelines for hepatic dosing or geriatric dosing. It is reported as a pregnancy category B drug, which means there have been no studies demonstrating clear risk. It has also been reported to be excreted in breast milk.

Adverse Effects

Amoxicillin is well tolerated, but some common complaints can be gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Superinfections as with fungi or Clostridium difficile colitis are also important complications. Crystalluria, nephritis, and hemolytic anemia can happen with prolonged administration. Of note, patients who take amoxicillin may have less diarrhea than those who take ampicillin, which may lead to better absorption in the gut.

Another important complication to be aware of is hypersensitivity reactions. Amoxicillin can lead to type-I, II, III, or IV reactions. It is important to differentiate between a type-I and type-IV hypersensitivity reaction because one may be more dangerous than the other. A type-I reaction is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to a sensitized patient that triggers widespread histamine release leading to an urticarial like pruritic rash or even more severe systemic symptoms, such as anaphylaxis. A type-IV hypersensitivity reaction is not mediated by histamine release, and is more papular or morbilliform in nature and often not itchy. Professionals suggest that almost all patients that receive amoxicillin inadvertently for infectious mononucleosis develop a maculopapular rash caused by a type IV-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. These types of reactions are not known to lead to anaphylaxis.

Contraindications

Any previous anaphylactic reaction or serious skin reaction (for example, Steven-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin or any other beta-lactam is an important contraindication to amoxicillin. This includes cephalosporins or carbapenems. It is important to note that newer data has suggested a much lower cross-reactivity with cephalosporins and carbapenems than once suspected. Another important consideration is to determine if the patient’s allergic rash is a type-I or a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction. Often patient’s will report a childhood allergy to amoxicillin, which is, in fact, a type-IV-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, often in the setting of infectious mononucleosis. This is not a contraindication to giving repeat amoxicillin. A type-1 mediated hypersensitivity reaction is, however, a contraindication given that a repeat exposure puts the patient at risk for anaphylaxis. Skin testing has been approved to help assist in hypersensitivity to penicillins. It has been reported that the risk of an allergic reaction in a patient with a positive skin test is roughly four percent, whereas a negative skin test has a relatively high sensitivity in ruling out a type-I hypersensitivity reaction[4].

Monitoring

It is important to be aware of hypersensitivity reactions, and the patient should be aware to notify their physician of any rashes[4]. Mild diarrhea is often tolerated[5]. However, prolonged diarrhea with fever and abdominal pain should be promptly evaluated by a physician. In a patient on a short-term course of amoxicillin, no specific laboratory monitoring parameters are suggested. During prolonged administration, such as for osteomyelitis, it is important to monitor renal and hepatic function as well as hematologic function periodically, throughout treatment.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Amoxicillin is a common antibiotic that is often prescribed by nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and internists. The drug is very safe but it is important always to get a proper history of allergy before prescribing the drug.[4][6]


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Amoxicillin - Questions

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Which drug can be used safely in pregnancy?



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Which medication can be given via oral route?



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Which of the following antibiotics has the highest activity against gram-negative organisms?



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Which is orally active?



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Which antibiotic treats gram-negative bacteria?



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Both ampicillin and amoxicillin are in the aminopenicillin class, yet there exists a significant advantage of amoxicillin over ampicillin. Which item listed below highlights this difference?



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A patient is receiving a prescription for amoxicillin 500 mg bid for 10 days. She asks for counseling on the medication. Which of the following is not a counseling point for her?



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Which one of the following organisms is not readily covered by amoxicillin?



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A 17-year-old girl presents to your out-patient clinic for fatigue, fever, sore throat, and cough. Her vital signs reveal an oral temperature of 100.5, a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg, heart rate of 98 bpm, and a respiratory rate of 18/minute. Examination shows erythema and exudates of the pharynx and tonsils, as well as enlarged submandibular lymph nodes. She is prescribed amoxicillin for suspected strep pharyngitis. Four days later the patient returns to clinic for development of a maculopapular rash. She has no other systemic symptoms, and her rash does not itch. Follow-up of her laboratory results reveals a positive Monospot test and a negative bacterial culture of her throat. What is the most likely etiology of the rash?



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Which of the following is not a typical first-line indication for amoxicillin?



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Which of the following is the correct mechanism and pharmacology for amoxicillin?



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Amoxicillin - References

References

Chow AW,Benninger MS,Brook I,Brozek JL,Goldstein EJ,Hicks LA,Pankey GA,Seleznick M,Volturo G,Wald ER,File TM Jr, IDSA clinical practice guideline for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2012 Apr;     [PubMed]
Hendricks KA,Wright ME,Shadomy SV,Bradley JS,Morrow MG,Pavia AT,Rubinstein E,Holty JE,Messonnier NE,Smith TL,Pesik N,Treadwell TA,Bower WA, Centers for disease control and prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerging infectious diseases. 2014 Feb;     [PubMed]
Weber DJ,Tolkoff-Rubin NE,Rubin RH, Amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate: an antibiotic combination. Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, antimicrobial spectrum, clinical efficacy and adverse effects. Pharmacotherapy. 1984 May-Jun;     [PubMed]
Reed MD, Clinical pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanate. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 1996 Oct;     [PubMed]
Shenoy ES,Macy E,Rowe T,Blumenthal KG, Evaluation and Management of Penicillin Allergy: A Review. JAMA. 2019 Jan 15;     [PubMed]
Adkinson NF Jr,Mendelson LM,Ressler C,Keogh JC, Penicillin minor determinants: History and relevance for current diagnosis. Annals of allergy, asthma     [PubMed]

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