Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (Nevoxanthoendothelioma, JXG)


Article Author:
Jacob Collie


Article Editor:
Eric Fillman


Editors In Chief:
Shane Havens
Jim Wang
Koushik Tripathy


Managing Editors:
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Frank Smeeks
Kristina Soman-Faulkner
Benjamin Eovaldi
Radia Jamil
Sobhan Daneshfar
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Pritesh Sheth
Hassam Zulfiqar
Navid Mahabadi
Steve Bhimji
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Ahmad Malik
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes


Updated:
6/4/2019 8:14:56 PM

Introduction

Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare and benign skin lesion.[1]  This disorder is the most common form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis.[2] These lesions can occur at any age. However, they are most commonly seen in infants and small children.[3] Typically, the clinical presentation consists of solitary or multiple yellow-brown skin nodules found on the face and neck.[3]  Cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic, and most lesions spontaneously involute. However, some cases present at noncutaneous sites and can result in serious complications.[1] 

As opposed to other xanthomatous diseases, juvenile xanthogranulomas are not associated with metabolic or lipid disorders.[3]

Etiology

It is presumed that juvenile xanthogranulomas develop after unknown stimuli (infectious or physical) provoke a granulomatous histiocytic reaction.[3] However, the true etiology of juvenile xanthogranuloma is currently unknown, and conservative management is generally advised.[4]  

Juvenile xanthogranulomas have been associated with juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JMML).[5]  Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is also seen in patients with neurofibromatosis (the incidence is between 1:2000 and 1:5000).  Rarely, it is seen in patients with both juvenile xanthogranuloma and neurofibromatosis.[4]  However, when this does occur, these children have a 20- to 32-fold increased risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia when compared to patients with neurofibromatosis alone.[6]

Other diseases associated with juvenile xanthogranuloma include the following: urticaria pigmentosa, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, aquagenic pruritis, and even cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.[5]

Epidemiology

Juvenile xanthogranulomas are most commonly found in early childhood with 5% to 17% of cases occurring soon after birth and 75% within the first nine months of life.[1] Approximately 10% of cases may appear in adulthood and are known as adult xanthogranuloma.[1]  In children, the disease most often affects males; however, in adults, there is no sex prevalence.[3]

Histopathology

Juvenile xanthogranulomas occur most commonly in the skin and show a characteristic morphology exhibited by diffuse invasion by numerous histiocytes along with scattered lymphocytes and eosinophils (early stage).[1] Of note, the mononuclear cells may show a spindled or elongated appearance.[5] Foam cells, foreign body giant cells, and Touton giant cells may be seen in the mature stage.[1] The characteristic multinucleated giant cell (Touton cell) is observed in 85% of juvenile xanthogranulomas, and these appear garland-like.[3][1] At the late stage of the lesion, fibroblasts are increased, and fibrosis replaces the infiltration.[1]

In ocular involvement, the tumor cells have abundant cytoplasm and show decreased numbers of Touton cells as compared to cutaneous juvenile xanthogranulomas.[1]

Lesions of juvenile xanthogranuloma classically stain with the following markers: CD68 or Ki-M1P and anti F XIIIa, vimentin, and anti-CD4.[1]

History and Physical

Juvenile xanthogranuloma generally occurs in two forms.[7] The first form is composed of multiple 2 to 5 millimeter dome-shaped papules that take on a pink to reddish brown hue and, subsequently, turn yellow.[7] The second form is composed of one or more large nodules which measure 1 to 2 centimeters.[7] Other variants and presentations include giant juvenile xanthogranuloma, atrophic plaque, cutaneous horn, and subcutaneous mass.[7]

Serious complications can arise when systemic juvenile xanthogranulomas develop. Systemic juvenile xanthogranulomas develop in 4% of children, with an overall mortality of 5% to 10%.[6]  Fatalities are usually due to progressive central nervous system (CNS) disease or liver failure.[6]  Extracutaneous juvenile xanthogranulomas most commonly affect the eye, and ocular involvement has been seen in 0.3% to 10% of children with cutaneous juvenile xanthogranulomas.[1] Most patients with eye lesions are young children (less than 1 year).[3] The iris is most commonly involved, and complications can arise that lead to spontaneous intraocular hemorrhages, glaucoma, and even blinding eye disease.[1] Of importance, spontaneous hyphema with or without increase of intraocular pressure is a common sign of iris juvenile xanthogranuloma.[8]

Other CNS complications include seizures, increased intracranial pressure, diabetes insipidus, and developmental delay.[6] These extracutaneous lesions may also be seen in the deeper soft tissues, spleen, and lung.[6]

Evaluation

Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique used as an aid in the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. It shows a characteristic setting sun appearance (red-yellow center and discrete erythematous halo). Complete removal via surgical excision gives diagnostic confirmation. [2]

Treatment / Management

Curative skin excisions may be performed in easily accessible sites; however, most lesions in childhood spontaneously involute and require no therapy.[6]

Management of non-cutaneous (internal) lesions poses greater difficulty and may include any combination of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunosuppression.[3] In general, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are options for the rare patient with symptomatic, unresectable, or incompletely resected extracutaneous disease.[4] 

Patients with concurrent neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) should receive frequent followup with a complete blood count to monitor for juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JMML).[6] 

Eye exams are recommended for high-risk patients. Topical, intralesional, and subconjunctival corticosteroids may be administered for ocular involvement. If complications arise (i.e., glaucoma or hyphema), surgery or systemic steroids may be required. [6]

Differential Diagnosis

The differential of juvenile xanthogranuloma includes both benign and malignant entities, depending on the clinical presentation and site of involvement.

One of the main differential diagnoses of juvenile xanthogranuloma is Langerhans cell histiocytosis (both may exhibit eosinophils). Helpful morphologic features for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are grooved vesicular nuclei with a coffee bean" appearance.[9]  Additionally, immunohistochemistry shows that the cells of LCH are positive for CD1a and S-100, whereas the cells of juvenile xanthogranuloma are negative for CD1a and S-100.[9] Recall that CD1a is a fairly specific marker for Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and this marker is not expressed in non-LCH diseases.[1]

Reticulohistiocytoma (another non-LCH histiocytic disorder) has a histologic appearance similar to juvenile xanthogranuloma.[9] This lesion demonstrates large mononucleated or multinucleated histiocytes with a lymphocytic infiltrate and dermal fibrosis.[9]  Although positive for CD68, these are negative for vimentin (unlike juvenile xanthogranuloma).[9]

Although juvenile xanthogranulomas may be found in uncommon locations (i.e., vulva), it is important to remember that other entities (such as embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma) may have a similar histologic appearance and should be ruled out.[9] The morphologic appearance of monomorphic small round cells with a cambium layer and necrosis would help direct to a malignant diagnosis in such cases.[9]

Other considerations for the differential diagnosis include other xanthomatous lesions, mastocytomas, dermatofibromas, and Spitz nevus.[4]

Prognosis

The prognosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma is generally excellent.[6]

Pearls and Other Issues

Isolated intracranial lesions of juvenile xanthogranuloma have been shown to carry a more favorable prognosis (as opposed to other examples of systemic disease). These lesions have been reported to have a BRAF V600E mutation akin to Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Erdheim-Chester disease. However, further study with a larger patient population is necessary to interpret these findings. [10]  

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The management of Juvenile xanthogranuloma is complex and is best done with a multidisciplinary team. While skin lesions can be excised, those occurring in  other parts of the body may cause compression or obstruction of vital tissues. Excising juvenile xanthogranuloma from the eye, brain, nerves, and other parts of the body is fraught with technical difficulties as these lesions are very invasive. This becomes more of an issue when there are multiple lesions.

The outcomes for patients with only skin lesions is good but those with lesions in the brain may suffer from complications of surgery.[11][12][13] (Level V)


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Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (Nevoxanthoendothelioma, JXG) - Questions

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A 3-year-old male with a history of neurofibromatosis and multiple juvenile xanthogranulomas has a peripheral blood smear demonstrating leukocytosis. This patient should be worked up for which of the following?



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Although most juvenile xanthogranulomas involute, serious complications can arise when systemic lesions occur. Fatalities are usually due to which of the following?



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The following image depicts which classic cell found in juvenile xanthogranulomas?

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A 5-year-old male is seen by an ophthalmologist for vision problems. The patient is found to have spontaneous hyphema without an increase in intraocular pressure. This is most likely due to which of the following?



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Which of the following entities is not in the differential diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma?



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Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (Nevoxanthoendothelioma, JXG) - References

References

Oliveira TE,Tarlé RG,Mesquita LAF, Dermoscopy in the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Anais brasileiros de dermatologia. 2018 Jan-Feb     [PubMed]
Szczerkowska-Dobosz A,Kozicka D,Purzycka-Bohdan D,Biernat W,Stawczyk M,Nowicki R, Juvenile xanthogranuloma: a rare benign histiocytic disorder. Postepy dermatologii i alergologii. 2014 Jun     [PubMed]
Pantalon A,Ștefănache T,Danciu M,Zurac S,Chiseliță D, Iris juvenile xanthogranuloma in an infant - spontaneous hyphema and secondary glaucoma. Romanian journal of ophthalmology. 2017 Jul-Sep     [PubMed]
Murphy JT,Soeken T,Megison S,Perez E, Juvenile xanthogranuloma: diverse presentations of noncutaneous disease. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2014 Nov     [PubMed]
Freyer DR,Kennedy R,Bostrom BC,Kohut G,Dehner LP, Juvenile xanthogranuloma: forms of systemic disease and their clinical implications. The Journal of pediatrics. 1996 Aug     [PubMed]
Haroche J,Abla O, Uncommon histiocytic disorders: Rosai-Dorfman, juvenile xanthogranuloma, and Erdheim-Chester disease. Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2015     [PubMed]
Gupta B,Yadav S,Khurana N,Sharma M, Juvenile Xanthogranuloma in Vulva of a 10-Year-Old Child. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 2016 Nov     [PubMed]
Vignault C,Bourgeault É,Gagné É,Bujold J, A Rare Case of Solitary Giant Congenital Juvenile Xanthogranuloma: A Case Report. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery. 2017 May/Jun     [PubMed]
Techavichit P,Sosothikul D,Chaichana T,Teerapakpinyo C,Thorner PS,Shuangshoti S, BRAF V600E mutation in pediatric intracranial and cranial juvenile xanthogranuloma. Human pathology. 2017 Nov     [PubMed]
Meyer P,Graeff E,Kohler C,Munier F,Bruder E, Juvenile xanthogranuloma involving concurrent iris and skin: Clinical, pathological and molecular pathological evaluations. American journal of ophthalmology case reports. 2018 Mar     [PubMed]
Mori H,Nakamichi Y,Takahashi K, Multiple Juvenile Xanthogranuloma of the Eyelids. Ocular oncology and pathology. 2018 Sep;     [PubMed]
Höck M,Zelger B,Schweigmann G,Brunner B,Zelger B,Kropshofer G,Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, The various clinical spectra of juvenile xanthogranuloma: imaging for two case reports and review of the literature. BMC pediatrics. 2019 Apr 24;     [PubMed]
Shenoy A,Singhal SS,Shinde S, Solitary Intraspinal Juvenile Xanthogranuloma in an Infant. Asian journal of neurosurgery. 2018 Jan-Mar;     [PubMed]

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