Entropion Eyelid Reconstruction


Article Author:
Reece Bergstrom


Article Editor:
Craig Czyz


Editors In Chief:
Shane Havens
Jim Wang
Koushik Tripathy


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Frank Smeeks
Kristina Soman-Faulkner
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Patrick Le
Sobhan Daneshfar
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Pritesh Sheth
Hassam Zulfiqar
Navid Mahabadi
Steve Bhimji
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Tehmina Warsi


Updated:
5/17/2019 10:18:07 PM

Introduction

Entropion is an inversion of the eyelid margin. Often the eyelashes are directed posteriorly at the globe. It is an extremely common lid malposition. When the lashes are directed toward the globe, it can cause corneal and conjunctival damage. Ultimately, this can lead to corneal disease. An entropion can be unilateral or bilateral. There are four types of entropion: congenital, involutional, acute spastic, and cicatricial. The most common type in the lower eyelids is involutional, while in the upper eyelid it is cicatricial.[1][2][3]

The older an individual is, the greater the chances of having an entropion. This is secondary to the weakening of the muscles and tendons, the most common type of entropion. Any mechanism that results in increased scar tissue formation can put an individual at risk for forming an entropion. Some common risk factors are the following: prior burns, trauma, infection, or inflammation. Entropion is thought to occur more often in females because females tend to have smaller tarsal plates than males.

Entropion can be caused by horizontal eyelid laxity, attenuation or disinsertion of eyelid retractors, overriding by the preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle, previous surgeries, infection, inflammation, or congenital origins. Involutional changes are the most common etiology of entropion. As we age, the canthal tendons relax, and the eyelid retractors attenuate, causing misposition of the eyelid margin. Infection, irritation, and inflammation are the primary causes of acute spastic entropion. This condition occurs most commonly after intraocular surgery in patients who had unrecognized involutional eyelid changes preoperatively. Continual orbicularis oculi muscle contraction causes inward rotation of the eyelid margin. This, in turn, causes ocular, specifically corneal irritation, due to lash rub which perpetuates the problem. A tarsoconjunctival contracture causes Cicatricial entropion. Any mechanism that results in increased scar tissue formation can put an individual at risk for forming a cicatricial entropion. Some common risk factors are the following: prior burns, trauma, infection, or inflammation.[4]

Anatomy

The eyelid is composed of multiple layers. Superficial layers to deep layers include the following: skin, muscles of protraction/orbicularis, orbital septum, orbital fat, retraction muscles, tarsus, and conjunctiva. The skin in relation to other skin is much thinner along the eyelid. Multiple nerves supply the eyelid. The superior lid's nerves are the infratrochlear, supratrochlear, supraorbital and lacrimal nerves of V1. The nerves of the lower eyelid are the infratrochlear and infraorbital nerve of V2. The blood supply to both of the lids is created by an anastomosis of the lateral and medial palpebral arteries. These arteries branch off the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery.

In general, the lower lid is supported by the tarsus, orbicularis, lid retractors, and canthal tendons. The canthal ligaments and tarsal plate horizontally stabilize the lid. The weakening of these structures permits the inversion of the lid. The lid retractors support the eyelid vertically. In the upper lid, the levator aponeurosis and Mueller's muscle provide this role. The lower lid retractors connect to the orbicularis muscle and skin overlying the muscle. As these extensions weaken, the preseptal orbicularis can move superiorly and supersede the pretarsal muscle causing the eyelid margin to rotate against the eye. Orbital fat content and overall volume decrease with age or after injury, often resulting in enophthalmos. The greater space between the eye and the eyelid creates a lid laxity or the ability for the greater orbicularis override driving an entropion to develop.

Indications

Patients with symptomatic entropion on a clinical exam.[5][6][7]

Contraindications

A patient who is unable to tolerate the procedure or have not attempted medical management. Medical management of the underlying etiology needs to be controlled first, and then surgical correction can be considered. If inflammation or infection are not controlled, the prognosis is worse, higher risk of complications, and can often progress.

Equipment

The following equipment is needed: No. 15 bard-parker blade, Castroviejo needle driver, Westcott scissors, Castroviejo 0.5 forceps, and cautery (monopolar or bipolar), 4-0 silk suture, 6-0 vicryl suture, 5-0 vicryl suture, corneal shield, and antibiotics ointment.

Personnel

Ophthalmologist or surgeon trained in oculofacial plastic surgery.

Preparation

The patient should have been properly examined before surgical intervention and deemed appropriate for surgery by an ophthalmologist or surgeon trained in oculoplastic procedures. The patient needs to be educated about the associated risks and benefits of the intervention, including alternative therapies available. All possible complications should be discussed. Lastly, all questions from the patient should be answered.

Technique

Internal Approach with Tarsal Strip for Involutional Entropion Repair

The patient is prepped and draped in the usual sterile, full-face oculofacial plastic surgery fashion. A corneal shield is placed in the (right/left) eye. A No. 15 Bard-Parker blade was used to make a 3 mm to 4 mm incision in the lateral canthal angle. The lateral canthal tendon and inferior crus are then disinserted. A tarsal strip is then created using Westcott scissors and 0.5 forceps. Hemostasis is maintained with cautery. A 4-0 silk traction suture is placed through the lash line or grey line of the lower lid. The lid is then everted. An incision in the conjunctiva below the inferior tarsal border from the lateral canthus lateral to the puncta is made. Dissection is continued toward the inferior orbital rim with a 0.5 forceps and Westcott scissors. The orbital fat is dissected to expose the lower lid retractors while maintaining hemostasis. The retractors are then dissected free from the conjunctiva. A 6-0 vicryl suture is passed through the inferior, anterior portion of the tarsus. It is then passed through the lower lid retractors beneath the conjunctiva toward the globe advancing them onto the anterior, inferior tarsus. Sutures are then placed across the lower lid. The sutures induce appropriate eversion of the eyelid without displacing the puncta. Additionally, a 5-0 vicryl suture is passed in a whipstitch fashion through the anterior and posterior tarsus of the lid. The suture is then passed through the periosteum at the lateral orbital rim. The suture is temporally tightened to assess lid position. Once appropriate. A buried, interrupted 6-0 vicryl suture is passed from gray line to gray line, upper to lower lid, to reform the lateral canthal angle. The 5-0 vicryl suture is tied down. The orbicularis is closed with a 6-0 vicryl in a buried, interrupted method. The skin incision was closed using simple, interrupted 6-0 plain gut sutures. Antibiotics ointment should be applied to the eye and all suture sites.

External Approach for Involutional Entropion Repair

The patient is prepped and draped in the usual sterile, full-face oculofacial plastic surgery fashion. A corneal shield is placed in the (right/left) eye. Attention is turned to the (right/left) lower lid. A 4-0 silk traction suture is placed through the (lash line/grey line) of the (right/left) lower lid. A surgical marking pen is used to mark an incision at the inferior border of the tarsus from approximately from the puncta to the lateral canthus. A #15 Bard-Parker blade is used to make a skin incision at the marking. The assistant then elevates the inferior portion of the incision with a lacrimal rake while caudally tractioning the cheek tissue. Dissection is continued toward the inferior orbital rim using 0.5 forceps and Westcott scissors. The orbital septum is opened and the preaponeurotic fat identified. The fat is dissected to expose the lower lid retractors. Hemostasis is maintained with (monopolar/bipolar) cautery. The retractors are then dissected free from the conjunctiva for 5-10mm. A 6-0 Vicryl suture (on a spatulated needle) is passed through the inferior, anterior portion of the tarsus. It is then passed in a buried fashion through the lower lid retractors advancing them onto the inferior tarsus. Three to four such sutures are placed an equidistance across the (right/left) lower eyelid. This should cause appropriate eversion of the eyelid without displacing the puncta from the proper position. The skin incision is then closed using simple, interrupted 6-0 plain gut sutures. The corneal shield is then removed from the (right/left) eye.  The antibiotic ophthalmic ointment is instilled into the (right/left) eye and on all suture sites.

Complications

Complications include the following: hemorrhage, overcorrection, lower lid retraction, under correction, infection, wound dehiscence, scarring, corneal injury, milphosis, and eyelid margin necrosis.[8][9][10]

Clinical Significance

The clinical significance is to restore the eyelid to it proper anatomical alignment. This, in turn, protects the eye from injury and reduces associated symptoms. Management can include ocular lubrication with ointments, artificial tears, or ocular protection with contact lenses. Botulinum toxins or Quickert sutures can temporarily provide relief, but only surgical treatment provides definitive treatment.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Patients with entropion may first present to the nurse practitioner, primary care provider or the internist. Since entropion is a progressive disorder with the potential of causing injury to the cornea, it is important to refer these patients to an oculoplastic suggeon or an ophthalmologist. There are several techniques of repairing entropion and skill and experience is required. Complications of the surgery include hemorrhage, overcorrection, lower lid retraction, under correction, infection, wound dehiscence, scarring, corneal injury, milphosis, and eyelid margin necrosis. The outcomes for most patients are good, but a number of patients do require REDO touch ups and cosmesis is not always perfect.[11][12]


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Entropion Eyelid Reconstruction - Questions

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In the repair of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion which of the following is not an tarsal substitute option?



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How does one determine the urgency of surgery in a patient with an entropion?



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Which of the following is a contraindication to eyelid reconstruction?



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Which of the following provides the ideal spacer graft material for cicatricial entropion?



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What procedure is useful in cases of mild to moderate cicatricial entropion?



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Entropion Eyelid Reconstruction - References

References

Chen B,Liu J,Ni J,Zhou S,Chen X, Lower eyelid tension balance reconstruction: A new procedure for the repair of congenital epiblepharon with epicanthus. Journal of plastic, reconstructive     [PubMed]
Cheung JJC,Wong CKH,Cheung LTY, Combined pentagonal resection and inferior retractor plication in involutional entropion. BMC ophthalmology. 2018 Dec 19;     [PubMed]
Al-Moraissi E,Elsharkawy A,Al-Tairi N,Farhan A,Abotaleb B,Alsharaee Y,Oginni FO,Al-Zabidi A, What surgical approach has the lowest risk of the lower lid complications in the treatment of orbital floor and periorbital fractures? A frequentist network meta-analysis. Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2018 Dec;     [PubMed]
Lin P,Kitaguchi Y,Mupas-Uy J,Sabundayo MS,Takahashi Y,Kakizaki H, Involutional lower eyelid entropion: causative factors and therapeutic management. International ophthalmology. 2018 Oct 12;     [PubMed]
Lee CC,Lai HT,Kuo YR,Lee SS,Lai CS, Floppy Eyelid Syndrome: An Unfamiliar Entity for Plastic Surgeons. Annals of plastic surgery. 2018 Feb;     [PubMed]
Bergstrom R,Czyz CN, Eyelid Reconstruction, Entropion 2019 Jan;     [PubMed]
Mohammed BR,Ford R, Success rate of nurse-led everting sutures for involutional lower lid entropion. Eye (London, England). 2017 May;     [PubMed]
Mutaf M,Temel M, A New Technique for Total Reconstruction of the Lower Lid. Annals of plastic surgery. 2017 Feb;     [PubMed]
Yamashita M,Kishibe M,Shimada K, Incidence of lower eyelid complications after a transconjunctival approach: influence of repeated incisions. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. 2014 Jul;     [PubMed]
Lee H,Park M,Chang M,Kang DW,Lee JS,Baek S, Clinical Characteristics and Effectiveness of the Lateral Tarsal Strip and Medial Spindle Procedure. Annals of plastic surgery. 2015 Oct;     [PubMed]
Vahdani K,Siapno DL,Lee JH,Woo KI,Kim YD, Long-Term Outcomes of Acellular Dermal Allograft as a Tarsal Substitute in the Reconstruction of Extensive Eyelid Defects. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. 2018 Jul;     [PubMed]
López-García JS,García-Lozano I,Giménez-Vallejo C,Jiménez B,Sánchez Á,de Juan IE, Modified lateral tarsal strip for involutional entropion and ectropion surgery. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie. 2017 Mar;     [PubMed]

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