Antipsychotic Medications


Article Author:
Krutika Chokhawala


Article Editor:
Lee Stevens


Editors In Chief:
Scott Klenzak
Barry Liskow
Brian Farah


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Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
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Saad Nazir
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Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes


Updated:
4/22/2019 1:23:55 PM

Indications

First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. They include phenothiazines (trifluoperazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, acetophenazine, triflupromazine, mesoridazine), butyrophenones (Haloperidol), thioxanthenes (thiothixene, chlorprothixene), dibenzoxazepines (loxapine), dihydroindole (molindone), and diphenylbutylpiperidines (pimozide).[1][2][3]

Second-generation antipsychotics are serotonin-dopamine antagonists and are also known as atypical antipsychotics. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved 12 atypical antipsychotics as of the year 2016. They are risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, paliperidone, asenapine, lurasidone, iloperidone, cariprazine, brexpiprazole, and clozapine.[4]

Indications

  1. Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective disorders: First and second-generation antipsychotics (except clozapine) are indicated for the treatment of an acute episode of psychoses as well as maintenance therapy of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. First generation antipsychotics are better for treating positive symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, among others. They also decrease the risk of a repeat episode of psychosis. Second-generation antipsychotics treat both positive symptoms and negative symptoms like withdrawal, ambivalence, among others and are known to reduce relapse rates.[5]
  2. Acute Mania: First-generation antipsychotics are effective in the treatment of acute mania with psychotic symptoms. All second-generation antipsychotics except clozapine can also be used as a treatment of symptoms of acute mania. Antipsychotics are used with mood stabilizers like lithium, valproic acid, or carbamazepine initially and then after symptoms have been stabilized can be gradually decreased and withdrawn.
  3. Major Depressive Disorder with Psychotic features: First or second-generation antipsychotic along with an antidepressant is the treatment of choice for depression with psychotic features. Olanzapine and fluoxetine as combination therapy have been FDA approved for treatment-resistant depression.
  4. Delusional Disorder: First-generation antipsychotics are indicated in the treatment of delusional disorder as well as paranoia associated with personality disorders.
  5. Severe Agitation: Severely agitated, irritable, hostile and hyperactive patients can be treated with a short-term course of first-generation antipsychotics irrespective of the etiology of the behavioral disturbance. Second-generation antipsychotics can also be used for treating acute agitation. Antipsychotics can also be used in children with severe autism exhibiting behavioral disturbances though repeatedly giving antipsychotics is not preferred. Risperidone and olanzapine are used to control aggression in children.
  6. Tourette Disorder: Haloperidol and pimozide are the antipsychotics most commonly used for this syndrome. Tourette disorder is an off-label indication for second-generation antipsychotics.
  7. Borderline Personality Disorder: This type of personality disorder can have symptoms of psychosis and paranoia. Both first and second-generation antipsychotics are used for the treatment of these symptoms.
  8. Dementia and Delirium: A low dose of high potency first-generation antipsychotic like haloperidol is recommended for the treatment of agitation in delirium and dementia. It is important to use caution in elderly patients as the antimuscarinic effects can cause significant adverse effects in this population. Second-generation antipsychotics can also be used for treating behavioral disturbances in dementia. Off-Label use of second-generation antipsychotics is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related dementia.
  9. Substance-induced psychotic disorder: In cases of severe psychosis secondary to substance use, antipsychotics can be used to control agitation symptoms. Caution is to be exercised when using first-generation antipsychotics in alcohol withdrawal and phencyclidine intoxication.
  10. Childhood Schizophrenia: Recent studies have shown the benefit of clozapine in treating early onset schizophrenia.

Other indications

Huntington disease, Parkinson disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder are some other conditions where antipsychotics can be used though it is not the primary drug of choice.

Clozapine

This is the drug of choice when the patient has failed multiple trials of standard antipsychotic therapies. Clozapine is also useful in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Indications for the use of clozapine include treatment-resistant mania, severe psychotic features, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pervasive developmental disorders, childhood autism, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease and suicidal patient with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

Mechanism of Action

The first-generation antipsychotics work by inhibiting dopaminergic neurotransmission. They are most effective when they block about 72% of the D2 dopamine receptors in the brain. They also have noradrenergic, cholinergic, and histaminergic blocking action.

Second-generation antipsychotics work by blocking D2 dopamine receptors as well as serotonin receptor antagonist action. 5-HT2A subtype of serotonin receptor is most commonly involved.

Administration

First-Generation Antipsychotics

All dopamine receptor antagonists are available and can be administered in oral form. Except for thioridazine, pimozide, and molindone, all other first-generation antipsychotics can also be given parenterally. Haloperidol and fluphenazine can be given in long-acting depot parenteral form.

Second-Generation Antipsychotics

These can be administered in oral or parenteral forms. Risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, and paliperidone are available as extended release or long-acting injectable forms. Clozapine, asenapine, and olanzapine are available in the sublingual formulation.

Adverse Effects

First-generation antipsychotics are associated with significant extrapyramidal side effects. Anticholinergic adverse effects like dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention are common with low potency dopamine receptor antagonists like chlorpromazine, thioridazine. The action of H1 histamine block by the dopamine receptor antagonists (DRAs) causes sedation. Chlorpromazine is the most sedating while fluphenazine, haloperidol, and pimozide are less sedating. DRAs also lower seizure threshold and chlorpromazine and thioridazine are more epileptogenic than others. Haloperidol can cause abnormal heart rhythm, ventricular arrhythmia, torsades de pointes and even sudden death if injected intravenously. Other DRAs cause prolongation of OTc interval, prolonged atrial and ventricular contraction and other cardiac conduction abnormalities. Thioridazine has a black box warning for sudden cardiac death. Low-potency DRA like chlorpromazine, thioridazine commonly cause orthostatic hypotension. This adverse effect caused by alpha-adrenergic block is usually seen initially when treatment is started and patients often develop a tolerance. It is important to avoid treating the hypotension with Epinephrine. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and blood dyscrasia are rare side effects of treatment with DRAs. Increased serum prolactin levels along with galactorrhea, breast enlargement, amenorrhea, impotence in men and anorgasmia in women are known adverse effects due to the action of the dopamine receptor block in the tuberoinfundibular tract. Allergic dermatitis and photosensitivity can occur with chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine is also associated with blue-gray skin discoloration and benign pigmentation of the lens and cornea. Thioridazine can cause retinal pigmentation which can continue even after the drug is discontinued.[6][7][8]

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare but fatal adverse effect that can occur at any time during treatment with DRAs. The onset of symptoms is over 24 to 72 hours with increased temperature, severe muscular rigidity, confusion, agitation, elevation in white blood cell count, elevated creatinine phosphokinase levels, elevated liver enzymes, myoglobinuria and acute renal failure. The antipsychotic should be immediately discontinued and dantrolene 0.8 to 2.5 mg/kg every 6 hours up to 10 mg per day is the drug of choice. Adequate hydration, cooling and close monitoring of vital signs and serum electrolytes should be done. Though the risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is more with first-generation antipsychotics, second-generation antipsychotics are also known to cause this adverse effect.

 Second-generation antipsychotics have a decreased risk of extrapyramidal side effects as compared to first-generation antipsychotics. Serotonin-dopamine antagonists (SDAs) are associated with significant weight gain and development of metabolic syndrome. The FDA recommends monitoring personal and family history of Diabetes, dyslipidemia, weight, and height, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and fasting lipid profile for all patients. Risperidone is associated with dizziness, anxiety, sedation, and extrapyramidal side effects. Paliperidone can cause temperature sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures and Qtc prolongation. Olanzapine has been associated with most frequently with weight gain, increased appetite, and somnolence. Quetiapine is the least likely to cause extrapyramidal side effects. The most common side effects of quetiapine are somnolence, orthostatic hypotension, and dizziness. Ziprasidone has almost no weight gain but can cause prolongation of QTc. Aripiprazole is the most common side effect of agitation, headache, and akathisia-like restlessness. Asenapine can cause an increase in serum prolactin levels, weight gain, and prolongation of QTc. Clozapine can cause hypersalivation, tachycardia, hypotension and anticholinergic side effects. Clozapine is unusual in that it suppresses dyskinesia. Clozapine cause agranulocytosis, leukopenia and requires monitoring of white blood cells and absolute neutrophil count. The FDA guidelines indicate monitoring absolute neutrophil count weekly for the first 6 months and if normal can be monitored every 2 weeks after that. Treatment with clozapine should be discontinued if absolute neutrophil count drops below 1000 cells per cubic millimeter or below 500 cell per cubic millimeter in those with benign ethnic neutropenia. Clozapine can also cause the rare side effect of cardiomyopathy and myocarditis.

Larger doses of all antipsychotics are associated with a higher incidence of adverse effects.

Contraindications

First-generation antipsychotics are contraindicated in the following situations:

  1. History of severe allergy
  2. Use of central nervous system (CNS) depressants like barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids
  3. With anticholinergic medication like scopolamine or use of phencyclidine.
  4. Severe cardiac abnormalities
  5. History of seizure disorder
  6. Narrow-angle glaucoma or prostatic hypertrophy
  7. History of or ongoing tardive dyskinesia

Second-generation antipsychotics carry the black box warning of increased incidence of stroke in elderly patients with dementia. It is recommended to avoid the use of second-generation antipsychotics along with other drugs that prolong the QTc interval.

Antipsychotics should be avoided during pregnancy especially in the first trimester and should be used only if the benefits outweigh the risks of treatment. Antipsychotics are secreted in breast milk, and it is advised to avoid breastfeeding.

Monitoring

Some antipsychotics can be monitored for a therapeutic range. It is recommended to monitor plasma levels at a trough, which is at a minimum of 12 hours after the last dose, and best at 20 to 24 hours after the last dose. Most antipsychotics do not have a well-defined, dose-response curve. 

Haloperidol has a therapeutic range of 2 to 15 ng/ml, chlorpromazine has a range of 30 to 100 ng/ml, and perphenazine has a range of 0.8 to 2.4 ng/ml.

Clozapine shows a better treatment response at a plasma concentration of 350 micrograms per milliliter or higher.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Antipsychotics are widely used medications for a variety of mental health disorders. While effective, these drugs do have many potent side effects. Healthcare workers including pharmacists and nurses need to be aware of the adverse effects because they can seriously affect the quality of life. To avoid the metabolic effects of these drugs, the patient needs to be educated on lifestyle changes. Regular exercise, discontinuation of smoking and eating a healthy diet are important. In addition, at each clinic visit, the patient's body weight, blood cholesterol, blood sugar and blood pressure should be recorded. If the patient is on clozapine, then regular monitoring of the white cell count is highly recommended. Only through strict monitoring can the high morbidity of these drugs be limited. [9][10][5]


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Antipsychotic Medications - Questions

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Which of the following is an example of an atypical antipsychotic agent?



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Which condition is not treated with antipsychotic medications?



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Which is the most prominent endocrine side effect of antipsychotics?



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Antipsychotics primarily work on which neurotransmitter?



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Dopamine receptor antagonism is the main treatment goal for which of the following diseases?



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Select the side effect not seen with antipsychotic medications.



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Which is true regarding antipsychotic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia?



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What is the likely mechanism of action of most antipsychotics drugs?



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Antipsychotic Medications - References

References

Drummond N,McCleary L,Freiheit E,Molnar F,Dalziel W,Cohen C,Turner D,Miyagishima R,Silvius J, Antidepressant and antipsychotic prescribing in primary care for people with dementia. Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien. 2018 Nov     [PubMed]
Jennings AA,Guerin N,Foley T, Development of a tool for monitoring the prescribing of antipsychotic medications to people with dementia in general practice: a modified eDelphi consensus study. Clinical interventions in aging. 2018     [PubMed]
Faden J,Citrome L, Resistance is not futile: treatment-refractory schizophrenia - overview, evaluation and treatment. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2018 Nov 8     [PubMed]
Haddad PM,Correll CU, The acute efficacy of antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a review of recent meta-analyses. Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology. 2018 Nov     [PubMed]
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Crouse EL,Alastanos JN,Bozymski KM,Toscano RA, Dysphagia with second-generation antipsychotics: A case report and review of the literature. The mental health clinician. 2017 Mar     [PubMed]
Lozupone M,La Montagna M,D'Urso F,Piccininni C,Sardone R,Dibello V,Giannelli G,Solfrizzi V,Greco A,Daniele A,Quaranta N,Seripa D,Bellomo A,Logroscino G,Panza F, Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of depression in patients with alzheimer's disease: a treatment-resistant depressive disorder. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2018 Jun     [PubMed]
Brodaty H,Aerts L,Harrison F,Jessop T,Cations M,Chenoweth L,Shell A,Popovic GC,Heffernan M,Hilmer S,Sachdev PS,Draper B, Antipsychotic Deprescription for Older Adults in Long-term Care: The HALT Study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2018 Jul     [PubMed]
Pathak S,Duff E, Antipsychotic use in older adults: Canadian best practices. The Nurse practitioner. 2018 Jun 11     [PubMed]
Yazici E,S Cilli A,Yazici AB,Baysan H,Ince M,Bosgelmez S,Bilgic S,Aslan B,Erol A, Antipsychotic Use Pattern in Schizophrenia Outpatients: Correlates of Polypharmacy. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP     [PubMed]

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