Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare


Article Author:
Sami Akram


Article Editor:
Fibi Attia


Editors In Chief:
David Wood
Andrew Wilt
Hajira Basit


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Khalid Alsayouri
Kyle Blair
Radia Jamil
Erin Hughes
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Navid Mahabadi
Hussain Sajjad
Steve Bhimji
Muhammad Hashmi
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Abbey Smiley
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beenish Sohail
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Sandeep Sekhon


Updated:
2/28/2019 8:19:26 PM

Introduction

Mycobacterium avium complex consists of multiple nontuberculosis mycobacterial species (NTM), which cannot be distinguished in the microbiology laboratory and requires genetic testing. M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellular are the two original members of this complex, known for about hundred years. Mycobacterium chimaera has been included in the M. avium intracellulare complex (2004). Some include Mycobacterium subspecies paratuberculosis in the My.avium complex as well. A newcomer to the Mycobacterium avium complex is the Mycobacterium paraintracellulare, identified in pulmonary infections in Southeast Asia in 2016.

M. avium was first isolated in chickens 1933 with a cavitary disease resembling tuberculosis. Human cases were identified decades later. M. avium complex is the most common cause of nontuberculosis mycobacterial species infections in humans, and respiratory system is the most common site of infection.[1][2][3]

Etiology

M. avium complex is a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, gram-positive acid-fast bacillus. M. avium complex is a nonchromogen and slow growing and takes about 10 to 20 days to develop mature colonies. M. avium complex belongs to class III of the Runyon classification. M. avium grows best at 34.5 C, and Mycobacterium intracellulare grows best at 31.5  C. However, M. avium complex components can grow between 28 C to 38.5 C. Most M. avium can survive 49 C. Whereas, only 10% of M. intracellulare survive a temperature of 49 C. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is similar to Mycobacterium avium complex in the biochemical properties and the same group. M. avium is composed of four named subspecies; these are, M. avium subspecies Avium (two strains), M. avium subspecies silvaticum, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and M. avium subspecies hominissuis. It appears that the M. avium subspecies avium are responsible for pulmonary infections and the M. avium subtype hominissuis appears to be gastrointestinal in origin (6). M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis was identified in ruminants as a causative agent for Johne disease. Some have hypothesized and debated for decades that M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of Crohn disease in humans without strong evidence. A recent publication found, a high prevalence of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis antibodies in inflammatory bowel diseases when compared to patients with noninflammatory bowel diseases, 64% vs. 9.7%. Live M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis was only isolated from two Chron's disease patients. M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis has also been reported to trigger autoimmunity including multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

In 2004 Mycobacterium chimaera were identified having a unique genetic composition of the Mycobacterium avium complex but different from both M. avium and M. intracellulare. Recently contamination of the heater-cooler system during cardiac surgery resulted in some device-related infections due to M. chimaera.

The biochemical reactions with Mycobacterium avium complex are catalase positive, negative for niacin, nitrate reduction and tween hydrolysis. The biochemical methods are inadequate for clinical use. Currently, molecular techniques have been applied and Mycobacterium avium complex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex developed, which can detect the individual components of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are some other ways to identify and diagnose Mycobacterium avium complex infections.[4][5][6]

Epidemiology

Mycobacterium avium complex is ubiquitous and has been reported from Americas, Asia, and Europe. There are pockets of high prevalence throughout the world. In the United States, the prevalence varies from 1.4 to 6.6 per 100,000 population, but no endemic area has been recognized. Recently a trend towards increasing Mycobacterium avium complex infections has been identified. A seasonal trend in mycobacterial infections around incidence cycle of 12 months, with peaks in late winter/spring and troughs in autumn, was noted. Women had higher prevalence, up to 1.6 fold relative to men. A study done in Australia has shown higher male prevalence (OR 2.1). The differences may be due to the nature of pulmonary involvement. Women have increased predilection for the nodular/bronchiectatic disease also known as Lady Windermere syndrome. Mycobacterium avium complex has been isolated from the environment from the soil, aerosolized water, bathrooms, house dust, birds, farm animals, hot water systems, cigarette components and house dust. The ecological niche of this organism has not been identified.[7][8]

Pathophysiology

MAC is acquired by inhalation and can also be ingested into the gastrointestinal tract, where it adheres to the mucosal epithelial cells and infects the macrophages. From the submucosal tissues and lymph nodes, the organism is then carried by lymphatics to the rest of the body. In most people, disseminated MAC infection will occur when the CD4 count is less than 50 cell per microliter. In patients who do not have HIV, the most important risk factor for MAC infection is underlying lung disease. MAC has also been associated with bronchiectasis and a hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction.[9]

History and Physical

Mycobacterial infections including Mycobacterium avium complex infections can be categorized into several clinical patterns including pulmonary disease, skin and soft tissue infections, musculoskeletal infections, disseminated disease, catheter-associated disease, and lymphadenitis. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation. Mycobacterium avium complex infections occur in both immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed patients. M. avium is the most frequent organism in the HIV, and immunosuppressed patients, about 40% of pulmonary infections in the immunocompetent patients, can be due to M. intracellulare. With the addition of new members to the Mycobacterium avium complex, the extent of involvement of each organism within the Mycobacterium avium complex is unknown.

Risk factors for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease are pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, other chronic lung diseases, persons with thoracic and skeletal abnormalities such as severe scoliosis, straight back syndrome, patients with mitral valve prolapse, CD4 less than 50 in AIDS patients, low CD4 in lymphoreticular malignancies, elderly women who suppress cough, immunosuppression post transplant and in patients with deficiency in IFN-gamma production as well as IFN-gamma receptor deficiency. Siblings of an index patient have a much higher prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection compared to the general population. There are no known risk factors for cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection and cervical lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex.

The Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease can be radiologically classified into fibro-cavitary and nodular bronchiectatic types. Case reports for atypical presentation such as pulmonary nodules, pleurisy, multiple cavitary nodules and pleural effusion with hydropneumothorax have been published. Pleural involvement may be seen in 5% to 15% of patients.

Symptoms in immunocompetent patients are nonspecific, with a chronic cough as the most frequent symptom. Fever and hemoptysis are not as frequent as in tuberculosis and uncommon in HIV patients. Fibro-cavitary disease is more common in Caucasian men, occurs in the setting of underlying structural lung disease, presents with worsening cough, hemoptysis and constitutional symptoms.

The bronchiectasis with centrilobular nodules has a predilection for middle lobe and the lingula. In the fibro-cavitary forms, the cavities are thin-walled with a predilection to the upper lobes. Elsewhere there may be tree-in-bud opacities, suggesting endobronchial spread.

A chest x-ray may not show bronchiectasis very well. A high-resolution CT (HRCT) is more sensitive to changes such as bronchiectasis, small nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, ground glass opacities and pleural thickening.  When compared to pulmonary tuberculosis, upper lobe cavitation is less common and middle lobe bronchiectasis more frequent in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infections. HRCT may show a feeding bronchus sign, which suggests that peribronchial nodules due to Mycobacterium avium complex infection evolve into focal cystic bronchiectasis and manifest as cavitary lesions; in this regard, the cavities are different from tuberculosis, where cavities are due to caseous necrosis of lung parenchyma. In the nodular-bronchiectatic form, the nodules are smaller than 5 mm to 10 mm and closely associated with areas of bronchiectasis. Both radiologic forms of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infections are prevalent equally, but the nodular bronchiectatic form is more common in elderly Caucasian women, who suppress a cough while the fibro-cavitary disease is more common in white men with underlying chronic lung disease.

Mycobacterium avium complex is also most frequent nontuberculosis mycobacterial species cause of cervical lymphadenitis commonly seen in children.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like presentation can occur. Initially thought to be an allergic reaction only, the current opinion may be shifting towards both infection and inflammation. 

Disseminated infections with Mycobacterium avium complex occur in the setting of AIDS and immunosuppression.

Evaluation

Infection with Mycobacterium avium complex may be asymptomatic. Colonization of the pulmonary tract without infection is unproven in the nontuberculosis mycobacterial species diseases. Contamination of sputum sample is possible therefore more than one sputum sample is required. Symptoms are non-specific, and the differential diagnosis is wide, microbiologic isolation is required to make the diagnosis. As per recommendations of Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), a minimum evaluation of a patient suspected of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection should include radiologic, microbiologic and clinical evaluation. Clinically exclusion of pulmonary tuberculosis is important. Clinical evaluation of underlying diseases, risk factors for mycobacterial diseases, and ability to tolerate prolonged multidrug therapy should be undertaken.

While Mycobacterium avium complex is not a part of the microbiome of the lung, there is no need to treat all patients with sputum positive for Mycobacterium avium complex. Selecting patients for therapy is a clinical calculus combining, microbiologic, radiologic and clinical criteria. The therapy is long, and there is significant potential for adverse drug reactions.[10][11]

Treatment / Management

The macrolide antibiotic is the backbone of therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex infections. The Infectious Disease Society of America recommended triple antibiotic therapy for fibro cavitary and severe nodular bronchiectatic disease. For moderate to mild disease, dual antibiotic therapy is sufficient. Observation is reasonable but in general Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infections are progressive, and eventually, a patient will have indications for therapy. In this situation, expert opinion suggests, that sputum should be checked once in three months and radiological evaluation once in six months. A chest x-ray may be sufficient for the fibro-cavitary disease, but HRCT is needed to assess nodular bronchiectatic disease. Risk factors for progressive disease are cavitary disease, low body mass index, older age, and co-morbidities. The risk of progression must be weighed against the potential risk of treatment.[12][13][14]

The medications used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infections are a macrolide, clofazimine, rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, fluoroquinolone, linezolid, and aminoglycosides. There is no proven correlation between in-vitro susceptibility and clinical response. The only susceptibility to macrolide and amikacin may be useful clinically. If the patient is intolerant to first-line drugs than susceptibility testing to secondary medications may be of some value. The goal of therapy is to have culture negativity for 12 months. Sputum conversion takes three to six months. Close monitoring for drug intolerance is required. At the initiation of therapy, baseline audiogram, electrocardiogram, eye exam for visual acuity and color discrimination complete blood count and the comprehensive metabolic panel must be obtained.

For severe and fibrocavitary disease, a typical three-drug regimen consists of daily oral azithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol; intermittent dosing is inadequate in this situation. For severe fibrocavitary disease, parenteral aminoglycoside can be used in the initial phase (first eight to 16 weeks of therapy) as a fourth agent, but there is no proven benefit. In patients who cannot tolerate parenteral aminoglycoside, inhaled amikacin can be used. For severe localized cavitary disease, surgical resection, after the sputum becomes negative, can be considered. Surgery is not without risk of formation of a bronchopleural fistula. For mild to moderate nodular bronchiectatic disease intermittent dosing of the three-drug regimen can be used.

No prospective studies evaluate the efficacy of the macrolide-containing three-drug or two-drug regimens. However long term sputum conversion rates of 86% have been documented. Small randomized controlled trials comparing three-drug and two-drug regimens showed higher treatment failure with two drug therapy. Macrolide containing regime was not evaluated in this trial.

The key to successful therapy is close monitoring for disease worsening and drug-related toxicity. Patients should be followed once every two months while on therapy. Introduce one drug at a time and a lower dose and increase to a therapeutic dose over two to five days. Therapeutic drug monitoring is of no proven value. Azithromycin peak levels can be measured in the setting of malabsorption or treatment failure or if the dose is considered to be low. A peak level of greater than 0.4 mcg/mL was independently associated with the favorable microbiologic response. Rifampin can decrease macrolide levels. A study by Koh WJ et al. in 101 patients showed no correlation between clarithromycin level and favorable microbiologic response.

Differential Diagnosis

  • HIV
  • Lymphoma
  • Fungal infections
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Tuberculosis

Complications

  • Severe wasting
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Splenomegaly
  • Generalized lymphadenitis
  • Synovitis, tenosynovitis

Pearls and Other Issues

Mycobacterium avium complex in HIV patients

Mycobacterium avium complex infections occur when the CD4 counts are less than 50. Mycobacterium avium complex infections frequently present as disseminated infections. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections are uncommon outside of HIV patients. Most infections are due to M. avium. For unknown reasons, M. intracellulare does not cause disseminated disease in HIV patients. The clinical presentation of the disseminated disease is non-specific. Common clinical findings are fever (more than 80%), night sweats (more than 35%), weight loss (more than 25%), abdomen pain, diarrhea, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, anemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase and elevated lactate dehydrogenase.

Antiretroviral therapy can begin simultaneously. Rifabutin can be used instead of rifampin to avoid drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral agents. Preferred regimens must contain clarithromycin and ethambutol.

Mycobacterium avium complex in Cystic fibrosis patients

The principles of the therapy are the same as in an immunocompetent patient. There may be some patients who may tolerate medications but never become sputum negative, in which case prolonged treatment may be required. Azithromycin is preferred over clarithromycin due to better tolerance profile.

Mycobacterium avium complex in transplant patients

Nontuberculosis Mycobacterial species infections are more common in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients than in solid organ transplant patients. The most common site of infection has been the lungs, and there is an increasing trend. Most infections have been in the setting of chronic rejection.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

MAC is a lung pathogen and most commonly affects patients with HIV and those who are immunosuppressed or have malignancies. The organism typically infects the lung but can affect any other organ in the body as the same time. Besides the infectious disease expert, the nurse and pharmacist need to educate the patient on the importance of drug compliance and the potential adverse effects of therapy. In addition, these patients develop severe wasting and a dietary consult is recommended to ensure that they consume at least 1800-2000 calories a day. Patients with MAC need to be educated on the symptoms of anemia and when to seek help. Many require repeated transfusions and hence, an outpatient nurse should follow up on these patients. Since many patients with MAC have low exercise tolerance, a physical therapy program is recommended to increase muscle mass and improve exercise endurance. The pharmacist should educate the patient on compliance with HAART, or the macrolide therapy may not be as effective. Finally, patients with MAC need regular x-rays to monitor their disease progression and hence follow up visit with a pulmonologist is recommended. [15][16](Level V)

Evidence-based Outcomes

Before the availability of the macrolide antibiotics, the majority of patients who acquired MAC died within 3-4 months. By the 1990s, the survival improved to 9-12 months. Today, with the availability of HAART and macrolides, many people have a much-improved outcome. However, despite treatment, wasting is common and many patients develop anemia requiring multiple transfusions. In patients without HIV, the course of MAC is somewhat mild with a life expectancy of 50% at 5 years. In patients with HIV, 5-year survival rates of 20-70% are reported- this depends on compliance with HAART therapy. Even patients with extensive disease can recover with treatment, but relapse is common. In children, MAC tends to cause lymphadenitis which runs a benign course. Sometimes lymph node rupture and sinus tracts may develop.[3][17] (Level V)


Interested in Participating?

We are looking for contributors to author, edit, and peer review our vast library of review articles and multiple choice questions. In as little as 2-3 hours you can make a significant contribution to your specialty. In return for a small amount of your time, you will receive free access to all content and you will be published as an author or editor in eBooks, apps, online CME/CE activities, and an online Learning Management System for students, teachers, and program directors that allows access to review materials in over 500 specialties.

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor

This is an academic project designed to provide inexpensive peer-reviewed Apps, eBooks, and very soon an online CME/CE system to help students identify weaknesses and improve knowledge. We would like you to consider being an author or editor. Please click here to learn more. Thank you for you for your interest, the StatPearls Publishing Editorial Team.

Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare - Questions

Take a quiz of the questions on this article.

Take Quiz
Which of the following mycobacteria has the highest incidence of resistance in the United States?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A patient with HIV requires prevention for Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. What is the drug of choice?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A 5-year-old has HIV and develops diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal pain. Select the pathogen that would mean the patient has AIDS.



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
What is the least likely way that nontuberculous mycobacteria are transmitted?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
Which of the following is the most appropriate management of lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare in children?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A patient with AIDS needs prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Which of the following medications can be used?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
Which is not caused by mycobacteria?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A patient with HIV/AIDS and a CD4+ cell count of 30/mm3 has a pulmonary infection caused by an organism that requires four weeks to grow on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Which of the following is the most likely cause?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
In an HIV-infected patient, what level of CD4+ T-cell count is associated with Mycobacterium avium complex infection?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
Which infection is most commonly seen in patients with AIDS only when CD4 counts are less than 50?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
Which of the following presentations is most commonly seen in a patient with HIV/AIDS who also has Mycobacterium avium complex infection?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
How is the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex infection confirmed?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
Which of the following antibiotics is not useful for the treatment of MAC infection?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
A 65-year old, thin built, otherwise healthy woman developed a cough with occasional night sweats over past 3 months that did not get better even after taking 2 courses of antibiotics. She is not a smoker and does not take any immunosuppressive drugs. She lives in a small in Iowa, has not traveled outside the United States or come in contact with a patient with tuberculosis. She works as a housewife. Her sputum test was sent for bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial cultures. What is the most likely diagnosis?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
What is the most frequent presentation of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection in a patient with AIDS?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up
What is the recommended regimen for Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAC) infection?



Click Your Answer Below


Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.


Sign Up

Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare - References

References

van Ingen J,Turenne CY,Tortoli E,Wallace RJ Jr,Brown-Elliott BA, A definition of the Mycobacterium avium complex for taxonomical and clinical purposes, a review. International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. 2018 Sep 19     [PubMed]
Goring SM,Wilson JB,Risebrough NR,Gallagher J,Carroll S,Heap KJ,Obradovic M,Loebinger MR,Diel R, The cost of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a nationally representative observational study. BMC health services research. 2018 Sep 10     [PubMed]
Asakura T,Nakagawa T,Suzuki S,Namkoong H,Morimoto K,Ishii M,Kurashima A,Betsuyaku T,Ogawa K,Hasegawa N, Efficacy and safety of intermittent maintenance therapy after successful treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. 2018 Aug 29     [PubMed]
Kham-Ngam I,Chetchotisakd P,Ananta P,Chaimanee P,Sadee P,Reechaipichitkul W,Faksri K, Epidemiology of and risk factors for extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Northeast Thailand. PeerJ. 2018     [PubMed]
Shin SH,Jhun BW,Kim SY,Choe J,Jeon K,Huh HJ,Ki CS,Lee NY,Shin SJ,Daley CL,Koh WJ, Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Diseases Caused by Mixed Infection with {i}Mycobacterium avium{/i} complex and {i}Mycobacterium abscessus{/i} complex. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2018 Aug 13     [PubMed]
Griffith DE,Aksamit TR, Mycobacterium Avium Complex and Bronchiectasis: There's Something Happening Here…. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2018 Aug 9     [PubMed]
Adjemian J,Daniel-Wayman S,Ricotta E,Prevots DR, Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriosis. Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine. 2018 Jun     [PubMed]
Zweijpfenning SMH,Ingen JV,Hoefsloot W, Geographic Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Clinical Specimens: A Systematic Review. Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine. 2018 Jun     [PubMed]
Koh WJ,Moon SM,Kim SY,Woo MA,Kim S,Jhun BW,Park HY,Jeon K,Huh HJ,Ki CS,Lee NY,Chung MJ,Lee KS,Shin SJ,Daley CL,Kim H,Kwon OJ, Outcomes of {i}Mycobacterium avium{/i} complex lung disease based on clinical phenotype. The European respiratory journal. 2017 Sep     [PubMed]
Taira N,Kawasaki H,Takahara S,Chibana K,Atsumi E,Kawabata T, The Presence of Coexisting Lung Cancer and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium in a Solitary Mass. The American journal of case reports. 2018 Jun 26     [PubMed]
Diel R,Nienhaus A,Ringshausen FC,Richter E,Welte T,Rabe KF,Loddenkemper R, Microbiologic Outcome of Interventions Against Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review. Chest. 2018 Apr     [PubMed]
Griffith DE, Treatment of Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC). Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine. 2018 Jun     [PubMed]
Adelman MH,Addrizzo-Harris DJ, Management of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine. 2018 May     [PubMed]
Huang HL,Cheng MH,Lu PL,Shu CC,Wang JY,Wang JT,Chong IW,Lee LN, Epidemiology and Predictors of NTM Pulmonary Infection in Taiwan - a Retrospective, Five-Year Multicenter Study. Scientific reports. 2017 Nov 24     [PubMed]
Kurashima A, [Japanese new guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease]. Kekkaku : [Tuberculosis]. 2010 Feb     [PubMed]
Lande L,George J,Plush T, Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: new epidemiology and management concepts. Current opinion in infectious diseases. 2018 Apr     [PubMed]
Lim AYH,Chotirmall SH,Fok ETK,Verma A,De PP,Goh SK,Puah SH,Goh DEL,Abisheganaden JA, Profiling non-tuberculous mycobacteria in an Asian setting: characteristics and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients in Singapore. BMC pulmonary medicine. 2018 May 22     [PubMed]

Disclaimer

The intent of StatPearls is to provide practice questions and explanations to assist you in identifying and resolving knowledge deficits. These questions and explanations are not intended to be a source of the knowledge base of all of medicine, nor is it intended to be a board or certification review of Pediatrics-Medical Student. The authors or editors do not warrant the information is complete or accurate. The reader is encouraged to verify each answer and explanation in several references. All drug indications and dosages should be verified before administration.

StatPearls offers the most comprehensive database of free multiple-choice questions with explanations and short review chapters ever developed. This system helps physicians, medical students, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals identify education deficits and learn new concepts. StatPearls is not a board or certification review system for Pediatrics-Medical Student, it is a learning system that you can use to help improve your knowledge base of medicine for life-long learning. StatPearls will help you identify your weaknesses so that when you are ready to study for a board or certification exam in Pediatrics-Medical Student, you will already be prepared.

Our content is updated continuously through a multi-step peer review process that will help you be prepared and review for a thorough knowledge of Pediatrics-Medical Student. When it is time for the Pediatrics-Medical Student board and certification exam, you will already be ready. Besides online study quizzes, we also publish our peer-reviewed content in eBooks and mobile Apps. We also offer inexpensive CME/CE, so our content can be used to attain education credits while you study Pediatrics-Medical Student.