Travelers Diarrhea


Article Author:
Noel Dunn


Article Editor:
Chika Okafor


Editors In Chief:
Jessica Snowden
Asif Noor
H Davies


Managing Editors:
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Frank Smeeks
Kristina Soman-Faulkner
Benjamin Eovaldi
Radia Jamil
Sobhan Daneshfar
Pritesh Sheth
Hassam Zulfiqar
Steve Bhimji
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Ahmad Malik
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Kavin Sugumar


Updated:
2/8/2019 11:50:05 PM

Introduction

Travelers’ diarrhea is a common ailment in persons traveling to resource-limited destinations overseas. Estimates indicate that it affects nearly 40% to 60% of travelers depending on the place they travel, and it is the most common travel-associated condition.  Bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections can cause symptoms, though bacterial sources represent the most frequent etiology. While travelers’ diarrhea is typically a benign self-resolving condition, it can lead to dehydration and, in severe cases, significant complications. [1][2][3]

Etiology

The most common bacterial cause is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), with estimates that the bacteria is responsible for nearly 30% of cases. Other common bacterial causes of travelers’ diarrhea include Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, and Salmonella species. Norovirus is the most common viral cause while rotavirus is another source of infection. Giardia intestinalis is the most common parasitic source while Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica can also cause travelers’ diarrhea. The most common cause of travelers’ diarrhea varies by region, though the source is rarely identified in less severe cases.[4][5][6]

Epidemiology

Estimates place the incidence of travelers’ diarrhea at 30% to 60% of travelers to resource-limited destinations. Incidence and causal agent vary by destination, with the highest incidence reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Other locations with high incidence include Latin America, Middle East, and South Asia. Risk factors are typically related to poor hygiene in resource-limited areas. These include poor hygienic practices in food handling and preparation; lack of refrigeration due to inadequate electrical supply; and poor food storage practices. Additional modifiable risk factors include proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, recent antibiotic use, and unsafe sexual practices. Risk factors for severe complications are pregnancy, young or old age, travelers with underlying chronic gastrointestinal diseases, or people who are immunocompromised. [7][8]

Pathophysiology

Travelers’ diarrhea is most commonly spread by fecal-oral transmission of the causative organism, typically through consumption of contaminated food or water.  The incubation period varies by causal agent, with viruses and bacteria ranging from 6 to 24 hours and intestinal parasites requiring 1 to 3 weeks before the onset of symptoms.  The pathophysiology for travelers’ diarrhea differs by a causative agent but can be split into non-inflammatory or inflammatory pathways. Non-inflammatory agents cause a decrease in the absorptive abilities of the intestinal mucosa, thereby increasing the output of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Inflammatory agents on the other hand cause destruction of the intestinal mucosa either through cytotoxin release or direct invasion of the mucosa. The loss of mucosa surface again results in a decrease of absorption with a resultant increase in bowel movements.[9]

History and Physical

The onset of symptoms will typically occur 1 to 2 weeks after arrival in a resource-limited destination, though travelers can develop symptoms throughout their stay or shortly after arrival. Travelers’ diarrhea is considered as three or more loose stools in 24 hours or a two-fold increase from baseline bowel habits. Diarrhea often occurs precipitously and is accompanied by abdominal cramping, fever, nausea, or vomiting. Patients should be asked about any blood in their stool, fevers, or any associated symptoms. A thorough travel history should be obtained including timeline and itinerary, diet and water consumption at their destination, illnesses in other travelers, and possible sexual exposures.

In most self-limited cases physical examination will show mild diffuse abdominal tender to palpation. Providers should assess for dehydration through skin turgor and capillary refill.  In more severe cases patients may have severe abdominal pain, high fever, and evidence of hypovolemia (tachycardia, hypotension).

Evaluation

Laboratory investigation is typically not required in most cases.  In patients with concerning features, such as with high fever, hematochezia, or tenesmus, stool studies can be obtained. Typical stool studies include stool culture, fecal leukocytes, and lactoferrin. The stool should be assessed for ova and parasites in patients with longer duration of symptoms. New multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screens are becoming available and provide quick analysis of multiple stool pathogens. These screens, however, are expensive, are not widely available, and may not change the clinical management of patients.[4]

Radiological studies are not required in most cases. Kidneys, ureters, and bladder x-ray can be obtained to assess for acute intra-abdominal pathology or look for evidence of perforation in severe cases. An abdominal CT can also be used to assess for intraabdominal pathology in severe cases.

Treatment / Management

Travelers should be counseled on risk reduction before travel, including avoiding tap water & ice, frequent hand washing, avoiding leafy vegetables or fruit that isn’t peeled, and avoiding street food. Bismuth subsalicylate (two tabs 4 times a day) can be used for prophylaxis and can reduce the incidence of travelers’ diarrhea by almost half, though it should be avoided in children and pregnant women due salicylate side effects. In short high-stakes travel, it may be reasonable to start antibiotics as prophylaxis but is generally avoided in longer-term travel. Rifaximin is a commonly used chemoprophylaxis due to its minimal absorption and minimal side effects.[10][11][12][11]

The foundation of diarrhea management is fluid repletion. In mild cases, travelers should focus on increasing water intake. Water is usually sufficient though sports drinks and other electrolyte fluids can be used. Pedialyte can be used for pediatric patients. Milk and juices should be avoided as this can worsen diarrhea. In more severe cases, oral rehydration salt can be used to ensure rehydration with adequate electrolyte repletion. In cases of severe dehydration, IV fluids may ultimately be required.

Treatment is supportive in mild-moderate cases. In patients without signs of inflammatory diarrhea, loperamide can be used for symptomatic relief.  The typical dose for adults is 4 mg initially with 2 mg after each subsequent loose stool, not to exceed 16 mg total in a day.

Also, travelers can be given antibiotics to take as needed at the onset of symptoms. Ciprofloxacin is commonly used for treatment, though there are concerns with resistance with Campylobacter species.  For this reason, fluoroquinolones are not often prescribed for travelers to Asia and azithromycin preferable. Also, azithromycin is often prescribed for pregnant travelers and children. A common regimen is 500 mg daily for three days, though evidence suggests that a single dose of 1000 mg may be slightly more effective. Parents can be given azithromycin powder with instructions to mix with water when needed. Rifaximin is a minimally absorbed antibiotic that is also available and is safe for older children and pregnant travelers.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Ischemic colitis
  • Vipoma
  • Radiation-induced colitis
  • Food poisoning

Complications

Postoperative and Rehabilitation Care

The majority of patients are managed as outpatients and need to do the following:

  • Maintain hydration
  • Hand washing
  • Only take antimotility agents if prescribed by the healthcare provider
  • Maintain good personal hygiene
  • If diarrhea persists for more than 10 days, should follow up with the primary provider

Deterrence and Patient Education

  • Wash hands regularly
  • Avoid shellfish from waters that are contaminated
  • Wash all foods before consumption
  • Drink bottled water when traveling
  • Avoid consumption of raw poultry or eggs
  • When traveling, consume dry foods and carbonated beverages
  • Avoid water and ice from the street
  • Avoid drinking water from lakes and rivers

Pearls and Other Issues

There is a strong correlation with travelers’ diarrhea and the subsequent development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with some studies suggesting up to 50% incidence.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The key to traveler's diarrhea is preventing it. Today, nurses are pharmacists are in the prime position to educate the patient on the importance of hydration and good hygiene. The traveler should be educated on drinking bottled water and washing all fresh fruit and vegetables prior to consumption. Plus, travelers should be warned not to drink from lakes and streams. The pharmacist should educate the traveler on managing the symptoms of diarrhea with over-the-counter medications or loperamide. Finally, the traveler should be educated on the symptoms of dehydration and when to seek medical care. [1][8](level V)

Outcomes

The prognosis for most patients with traveler's diarrhea is excellent. However, thousands of patients go to the emergency departments each year looking for a magical cure. Hydration is the key and admission is only required for severe dehydration and orthostatic hypotension. The elderly and children under the age of 4 are at the highest risk for developing complications, which often occur because of self-prescribing of over-the-counter medications.[13][14] (Level V)

 


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Travelers Diarrhea - Questions

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Travelers Diarrhea - References

References

Bae JM, Prophylactic Efficacy of Probiotics on Travelers' Diarrhea: An Adaptive Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Epidemiology and health. 2018 Aug 29     [PubMed]
Ericsson CD,Riddle MS, Should travel medicine practitioners prescribe antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea? Journal of travel medicine. 2018 Sep 1     [PubMed]
Angelo KM,Haulman NJ,Terry AC,Leung DT,Chen LH,Barnett ED,Hagmann SHF,Hynes NA,Connor BA,Anderson S,McCarthy A,Shaw M,Van Genderen PJJ,Hamer DH, Illness among US Resident Student Travelers after Return to the United States: A GeoSentinel Analysis, 2007-2017. Journal of travel medicine. 2018 Aug 23     [PubMed]
Connor BA,Rogova M,Whyte O, Use of a multiplex DNA extraction PCR in the identification of pathogens in travelers' diarrhea. Journal of travel medicine. 2018 Jan 1     [PubMed]
Dunn N,Juergens AL, Giardiasis null. 2018 Jan     [PubMed]
Shirley DT,Farr L,Watanabe K,Moonah S, A Review of the Global Burden, New Diagnostics, and Current Therapeutics for Amebiasis. Open forum infectious diseases. 2018 Jul     [PubMed]
Hirata K,Ogawa T,Fujikura H,Ogawa Y,Hirai N,Nakagawa-Onishi T,Uno K,Takeyama M,Kasahara K,Nakamura-Uchiyama F,Konishi M,Mikasa K, Characteristics of health problems in returned overseas travelers at a tertiary teaching hospital in a suburban area in Japan. Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. 2018 Aug     [PubMed]
Hagmann SHF,Christenson JC,Fischer PR, Travelers' diarrhea in children: a blind spot in the expert panel guidelines on prevention and treatment. Journal of travel medicine. 2018 Jan 1     [PubMed]
Ashkenazi S,Schwartz E,O'Ryan M, Travelers' Diarrhea in Children: What Have We Learnt? The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2016 Jun     [PubMed]
Houle SK, Pharmacy travel health services: current perspectives and future prospects. Integrated pharmacy research     [PubMed]
Schrader AJ,Tribble DR,Riddle MS, Strategies to Improve Management of Acute Watery Diarrhea during a Military Deployment: A Cost Effectiveness Analysis. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2017 Dec     [PubMed]
Riddle MS,Connor BA,Beeching NJ,DuPont HL,Hamer DH,Kozarsky P,Libman M,Steffen R,Taylor D,Tribble DR,Vila J,Zanger P,Ericsson CD, Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of travelers' diarrhea: a graded expert panel report. Journal of travel medicine. 2017 Apr 1     [PubMed]
Riddle MS,Connor P,Fraser J,Porter CK,Swierczewski B,Hutley EJ,Danboise B,Simons MP,Hulseberg C,Lalani T,Gutierrez RL,Tribble DR, Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Therapy of Travelers' Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 3 Single-Dose Antibiotic Regimens With Loperamide. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2017 Nov 29     [PubMed]
Thomson CA,Gibbs RA,Heyworth JS,Giele C,Firth MJ,Effler PV, Pretravel Health Advice Among Australians Returning From Bali, Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol. JMIR research protocols. 2016 Dec 7     [PubMed]

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