HIV Disease


Article Author:
Angel Justiz Vaillant


Article Editor:
Peter Gulick


Editors In Chief:
William Gossman


Managing Editors:
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Frank Smeeks
Kristina Soman-Faulkner
Benjamin Eovaldi
Radia Jamil
Sobhan Daneshfar
Pritesh Sheth
Hassam Zulfiqar
Steve Bhimji
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Ahmad Malik
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Kavin Sugumar


Updated:
2/22/2019 5:22:59 PM

Introduction

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus that contains 2 copies of a single-stranded RNA genome. It causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is the last stage of HIV disease. Four to 10 weeks after the HIV enters the body, the patient may complain of symptoms of primary infection.[1] After that, a long chronic HIV infection occurs, which can last for decades[2] AIDS is mainly characterized by opportunistic infections and tumors, which are usually fatal without treatment.[3][4]

Etiology

The cause of this infectious disease is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which can be classified into HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is more globally expanded and virulent. It originated in Central Africa. HIV-2 is much less virulent and comes from West Africa. Both viruses are related antigenically to immunodeficiency viruses found primarily in primates.

Epidemiology

The estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS is 36.7 million worldwide as 2016. In the United States, a critical risk factor for the HIV propagation among young people is the use of drugs before having sex including marijuana, alkyl nitrites ("poppers"), cocaine, and Ecstasy.[3] Other risk factors associated with a risk of acquiring HIV infection include men who have sex with men, unsafe sexual practices, the use of intravenous drugs, and unsafe blood transfusions or blood products.

Pathophysiology

HIV attaches to CD4 molecule and CCR5 (a chemokine co-receptor), the virus surface fuses with the cellular membrane which allows it entry into a T-helper lymphocyte. After integration in the host genome, the HIV provirus forms and then follows transcription and the production of viral mRNAs. HIV structural proteins are made and assembled in the host cell. Viral budding from host cells can release millions of HIV particles that can go to infect other cells.

Histopathology

Benign lymphadenopathy biopsies of HIV patients have shown one of the following morphological patterns:

  • Florid follicular hyperplasia 
  • Mixed follicular hyperplasia and follicular involution  
  • Follicular involution
  • Lymphocyte depletion

These histological features relate clinical stage of the disease with CD4 counts.[5]

History and Physical

Primary infection occurs 4 to 10 weeks after unprotected sexual practice with an HIV-infected person. The primary HIV infection is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Skin rash
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes[1]

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by the following signs and symptoms and can last for decades:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Oral thrush
  • Shingles
  • Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy[2]

Evaluation

HIV infection can remain undetected for years. However, they are several tests to diagnose it[6][7]:

  • Fourth generation assay: Detect specific antibodies and P24 HIV antigens
  • Rapid test: Use blood or saliva to detect an HIV infection within hours
  • Polymerase-chain-reaction: Can be a diagnostic or a confirmative test for HIV infection and can provide information of the viral load

Treatment / Management

Antiretrovirals are drugs used to treat HIV infections/AIDS, and they are used in various combinations commonly referred to as highly active retroviral therapy (HAART). The antiretrovirals agent include nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), NRTI fixed-dose combinations, integrase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors and CCR5 inhibitors. All patients with HIV regardless of what level of CD4 should be started on HAART, which is a treatment for life. This therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality plus lower the risk of transmitting the infection to others, as long as the individual has low or undetectable viral load.

Single Tablet Regimens

  • Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil is a tablet comprising 600-mg efavirenz, 200-mg emtricitabine, and 245-mg tenofovir disoproxil. It should be taken as a single pill once a day. It can cause sleep disturbances, tiredness, dizziness, rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal dreams, impaired concentration, headache, anxiety, depression, raised creatine kinase levels, skin darkening, low blood phosphate levels, weakness, stomach pains, bloating and flatulence.
  • Rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil is a tablet comprising 25-mg rilpivirine, 200-mg emtricitabine, and 245-mg tenofovir disoproxil. It should be taken as a single pill once a day. Side-effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, insomnia, headache, fatigue, weakness, rash, stomach pains, flatulence, changes in kidney function, raised creatine kinase levels, low blood phosphate levels, skin darkening, mood changes, and depression.
  • Rilpivirine/tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine is a tablet comprising 25-mg rilpivirine, 25-mg tenofovir alafenamide, and 200-mg emtricitabine. It should be taken as a single pill once a day. It can cause reduced white, red blood cell and platelet count, raised lipids, tiredness, headache, dizziness, insomnia, depression, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, flatulence, liver enzymes, dry mouth, raised amylase levels, and bilirubin.
  • Elvitegravir /cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide is a tablet comprising 150-mg elvitegravir, 150-mg cobicistat, 200-mg emtricitabine, and 10-mg tenofovir alafenamide. It should be taken as a single tablet once a day. Side-effects of this regimen include nausea, abnormal dreams, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, headache, dizziness, rash, and tiredness.
  • Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil is a drug comprising 150-mg elvitegravir, 150-mg cobicistat, 200-mg emtricitabine, 245-mg tenofovir disoproxil. It should be taken as a single tablet once a day. It can cause nausea, headache, fatigue, diarrhea, dreams, dizziness, insomnia, rash, flatulence and sleepiness.
  • Dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine is an antiretroviral comprising 50-mg dolutegravir, 600-mg abacavir, and 300-mg lamivudine. It should be taken as a single tablet once a day. Side-effects include insomnia, headache, diarrhea, stomach pain, drowsiness, dizziness, hair loss, nausea, fatigue, rash, itching, vomiting, depression, flatulence, muscle pain and discomfort, an irritated or a runny nose, indigestion and loss of appetite.

Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

  • Abacavir (300 mg), a tablet, should be taken twice a day or 600 mg once a day. Its side-effects include nausea, fever, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, tiredness and loss of appetite.
  • Emtricitabine (200 mg), a capsule, should be taken once a day. It can cause nausea, raised creatine kinase levels, diarrhea, headache, and skin darkening.
  • Lamivudine 150 and 300 mg, a tablet of 150 mg should be taken twice a day or 300 mg once a day. The regimen can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hair loss, fever, insomnia (difficulty sleeping), rash, tiredness, and joint pain.
  • Zidovudine comes in 100- and 250-mg capsules. A capsule (250 mg) should be taken twice a day. Common side-effects are nausea, fatigue, headache, weakness, muscle pain, vomiting, loss of appetite and fever.
  • Tenofovir disoproxil (245 mg), should be taken once a day. It can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood phosphate levels, flatulence, dizziness, weakness, rash, headache, stomach pains, and fatigue.

NRTI Fixed-Dose Combinations

  • Abacavir/lamivudine: Tablet comprising 600-mg abacavir and 300mg lamivudine. It should be taken one tablet once a day. Its commonest side-effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, hair loss, cough, fever, headache, stomach pains, tiredness, runny nose, insomnia (difficulty sleeping), muscle pain, rash, joint pain, and hypersensitivity reaction.   
  • Abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine: Tablet comprising 300-mg abacavir, 150-mg lamivudine, and 300-mg zidovudine. One tablet twice a day should be taken. It can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, hair loss, cough, headache, stomach pains, tiredness, runny nose, insomnia (difficulty sleeping), joint pain, rash, dizziness, muscle pain, and hypersensitivity reaction.   
  • Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil: Tablet comprising 200-mg emtricitabine and 245-mg tenofovir disoproxil. One tablet once a day should be taken. It can cause nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, flatulence, dizziness, headache, raised creatine kinase levels, rashes, low blood phosphate levels, weakness, rash, skin darkening, stomach pains and difficulty sleeping.
  • Lamivudine/zidovudine: Tablet comprising 150-mg lamivudine and 300-mg zidovudine. It should be taken one tablet twice a day. Its significant side-effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, insomnia (difficulty sleeping), cough, runny nose, stomach pains, hair loss, fever, rash, tiredness, joint pain, dizziness, muscle pain and loss of appetite.

Integrase Inhibitors

  • Dolutegravir 50-mg tablet: Taken 50 mg once a day or 50 mg twice a day if taken with efavirenz, nevirapine or tipranavir. It can cause nausea, diarrhea, headache, rash, itching, vomiting, dizziness, abnormal dreams, fatigue, flatulence, stomach pain or discomfort, insomnia, an increase in liver and muscle enzymes.
  • Raltegravir 400- mg tablet: It should be taken 400 mg twice a day. Its side-effects include a headache, insomnia and rarely severe rash, hypersensitivity reaction, and extreme thirst.

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

  • Etravirine 100- and 200-mg tablets: It should be taken as a 200-mg tablet twice daily. The side-effects are rash and peripheral neuropathy.Nevirapine 200-mg tablet is taken once a day for two weeks, then 200mg twice a day. It can cause liver toxicity, rash, nausea, headache, allergic reaction, fatigue, stomach pain, and diarrhea
  • Rilpivirine 25-mg tablet is taken once a day. Its significant side-effects are insomnia, headache, rash, stomach pains, raised liver enzymes, depression, dizziness, and vomiting.

CCR5 Inhibitor

  • Maraviroc 150- and 300-mg tablets: THis tablet should be taken at a dose of 300 mg twice a day. It can cause diarrhea, fatigue, and headache and rarely liver disease.

Protease Inhibitors

  • Atazanavir 150-, 200- and 300-mg capsules: The 300-mg formula also comes with 100-mg ritonavir and should be taken once a day. It can cause nausea, diarrhea, rash, stomachache, headache, insomnia, hyperbilirubinemia, lipodystrophy, vomiting, liver toxicity and diabetes.
  • Darunavir  600- and 800-mg tablet: It should be taken as an 800-mg tablet with 100-mg ritonavir once a day. Its common side-effects include diarrhea, nausea, rash, stomach pain, headache, lipodystrophy, diabetes, and liver toxicity.
  • Lopinavir /ritonavir tablet is comprised of 20-mg lopinavir and 50-mg ritonavir that is taken as 2 tablets twice a day or 4 pills once a day. It may cause lipodystrophy, raised liver enzymes, nausea, abdominal pain, weakness, vomiting heartburn, headache, diarrhea, increased lipids, liver toxicity, and diabetes.
  • Atazanavir /cobicistat tablet is comprised of 300-mg atazanavir and 150-mg cobicistat. It should be taken once a day. It can cause jaundice, hyperglycemia, dry mouth, headache, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, sleep problems, hyperbilirubinemia, rash, fatigue, and lipodystrophy.

Staging

Patients with HIV and a CD4 counts greater than 200, but less than 500 do not have AIDS but can develop chronic infections as well as noninfectious conditions. Diseases such as chronic candidiasis of the mouth or recurrent vaginal candida may occur. Patients may develop severe bouts of herpes simplex or herpes zoster (shingles). Patients are also at a higher risk for cancers that are much more difficult to treat than in healthy people. Patients with normal CD4 counts (greater than 500) tend to have a good quality of life with a lifespan within 4 years of someone without HIV  Patients with a CD4 count less than 200 have AIDS and are susceptible to opportunistic infections. They usually have a lifespan of 2 years if they are started on HAART. If these patients are treated with antiretroviral agents and achieve a CD4 count greater than 500, they will have a normal life expectancy.

Prognosis

The prognosis of a patient with HIV and a CD4 count greater than 500 (normal) results in a life expectancy as someone without HIV. A person with untreated AIDS has a life expectancy of about 1 to 2 years after the first opportunistic infection. Antiretroviral treatment can increase CD4 counts and change the patient's status from AIDS to someone with HIV.

Complications

Complication of HIV disease is its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The physician should suspect it once opportunistic infections and/or low CD4 count are present in an individual who is HIV positive.

AIDS occurs when lymphocyte count falls below a level (less than 200 cells per microliters)[3][4] and is characterized by one or more of the following:

  • Tuberculosis (TB) 
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Candidiasis
  • Cryptococcal meningitis 
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Toxoplasmosis 
  • Kaposi's sarcoma 
  • Lymphoma 
  • Neurological complications (AIDS dementia complex)
  • Kidney disease

Deterrence and Patient Education

Principal facts for HIV prevention are patient education which includes the following:

  • Inform all sexual partners if the individual is HIV positive.
  • Use a clean needle to inject drugs and dispose of it. It is imperative that one should do not share it with anybody.
  • Male circumcision reduces the likelihood of HIV infection. Discuss it with the primary care provider.  
  • Use a clean condom at all times when having sexual intercourse. Preferably use a condom that contains a water-based lubricant, which is more protective.
  • The HIV-positive female must be treated during pregnancy.
  • Use emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil to reduce the risk of a sexually transmitted HIV infection. It must be taken every day, and the individual can still be involved in safe sex practices. It does not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The management of an HIV-positive patient is complex, and it should be carried out by an interprofessional, health care team that includes nurses, a social worker, a family doctor, an internal medicine specialist, and an infectious disease specialist. If an opportunistic infection or a mass develops, the patient should be evaluated by an oncologist and/or surgeon. Psychological support must be provided once the diagnosis of HIV is made.


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HIV Disease - Questions

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During an HIV infection, the HIV virus binds to GP120. Fusion with which protein results in cell entry?



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Which factor must be present for the HIV to successfully enter the cell prior to infection?



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ELISA is the first test used to make a diagnosis of HIV. What does it measure?



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Which of the following is not a characteristic of pneumothorax in HIV patients?



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A young HIV-positive male undergoes a thoracotomy for a lung mass. Frozen sections reveal Cryptococcus. What is the next step in the management of this patient?



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In a patient with HIV, how does the virus attach to the host cell receptor?



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Which of the following is a diploid virus?



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What is the test used to confirm the diagnosis of early HIV?



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A 17-year-old G1P0 female presents for prenatal care. Her last menstrual period was 2.5 months ago. An ELISA test and Western blot are positive for HIV. Which of the following is a correct statement?



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Which of the following is a difference between males and females with HIV infections?



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Which test is used to confirm the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?



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In HIV patients, opportunistic infections usually start to occur when the CD4 lymphocyte count is less than which value?



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Which of the following is characteristic of AIDS?



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Which of the following is not considered to be an autoimmune disease?



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Which of the following is a target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?



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Which virus interacts with CD4+ cellular receptors?



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Which of the following tests are used to confirm HIV infection?



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Which disease may result in a severe recurrent case of seborrheic dermatitis?



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Which of the following skin problems is common in HIV infected patients?



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A young child adopted from Africa developed papular pruritic eruptions all over the skin. The child most likely has:



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A patient with AIDS is admitted to the hospital with fever and chills. The initial workup reveals an infection. It is decided to premedicate the patient with ibuprofen and diphenhydramine. What medication is the patient most likely going to receive?



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Which of the following is true of a patient diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus and deemed a threat to public health who refuses treatment?



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What is the leading cause of death among 25 to 34-year olds?



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Which of the following can artificially depress CD4 counts and can increase the viral load in HIV positive individuals?



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Patients with AIDS should not receive which of the following vaccines?



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Which of the following presents the greatest risk for a child to be infected with HIV in medical settings?



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Which of the following is the intervention of choice to decrease the number of mother-to-child cases of HIV in the U.S.?



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Which of the following is the count used by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, regardless of any signs or symptoms, to determine HIV-infection?



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Which of the following statements is true about acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection?



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Who is not at risk for HIV infection?



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What is the gynecological disorder that causes the highest number of deaths amongst young HIV positive females?



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Depletion of CD4 T cells is usually seen in which of the following conditions?

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A mother of a 13-year-old adolescent female patients calls you because she suspects one of her daughter's classmates may have HIV infection. What is the most appropriate response?



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Intravenous immunoglobulin is recommended for an HIV-infected child in which circumstance?



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Which of the following is characteristic of AIDS?



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Among the varied dermatological conditions seen in HIV infection, what is the most frequently observed mucocutaneous lesion?



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Which of the following is a difference between males and females with HIV infections?



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Which of the following can artificially depress CD4 counts and can increase the viral load in HIV positive individuals?



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Which of the following is true of a patient diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus and deemed a threat to public health who refuses treatment?



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Which of the following is the intervention of choice to decrease the number of mother-to-child cases of HIV in the U.S.?



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A 17-year-old G1P0 female presents for prenatal care. Her last menstrual period was 2.5 months ago. An ELISA test and Western blot are positive for HIV. Which of the following is a correct statement?



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HIV cell envelope contains which glycoprotein?



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Which of the following was the percentage of Americans with severe hemophilia which became infected with HIV in the 1980s when the nation's blood supply was contaminated by blood pooled from people infected by HIV/AIDS?



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Which of the following has the world's most rapidly expanding HIV epidemic?



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Which of the following tests is used to confirm HIV infection?



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Which of the following tests is used to confirm HIV infection?



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During an HIV infection, the HIV virus binds to GP120. Fusion with which protein results in cell entry?



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HIV Disease - References

References

Brew BJ,Garber JY, Neurologic sequelae of primary HIV infection. Handbook of clinical neurology. 2018     [PubMed]
Capriotti T, HIV/AIDS: An Update for Home Healthcare Clinicians. Home healthcare now. 2018 Nov/Dec     [PubMed]
Javadi S,Menias CO,Karbasian N,Shaaban A,Shah K,Osman A,Jensen CT,Lubner MG,Gaballah AH,Elsayes KM, HIV-related Malignancies and Mimics: Imaging Findings and Management. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 2018 Oct 19     [PubMed]
Pires CAA,Noronha MAN,Monteiro JCMS,Costa ALCD,Abreu Júnior JMC, Kaposi's sarcoma in persons living with HIV/AIDS: a case series in a tertiary referral hospital. Anais brasileiros de dermatologia. 2018 Jul-Aug     [PubMed]
Chadburn A,Abdul-Nabi AM,Teruya BS,Lo AA, Lymphoid proliferations associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Archives of pathology     [PubMed]
Xu HF,Zhou HZ,Jiang LX,Zhang N,Zhang X,Guan XR, Trends in HIV infection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin, China. BMC infectious diseases. 2014 Nov 25     [PubMed]
Rayne F,Debaisieux S,Tu A,Chopard C,Tryoen-Toth P,Beaumelle B, Detecting HIV-1 Tat in Cell Culture Supernatants by ELISA or Western Blot. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2016     [PubMed]

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