Colitis, Collagenous And Lymphocytic

Article Author:
Kelby Hempel

Article Editor:
Anuj Sharma

Editors In Chief:
Kranthi Sitammagari
Mayank Singhal

Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Erin Hughes
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Hussain Sajjad
Steve Bhimji
Muhammad Hashmi
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes

6/4/2019 7:03:19 PM


Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea that becomes more common as we age.[1] Two types of microscopic colitis are defined based on findings by biopsy. These include collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Clinical features of both of these are very similar. Patients will typically present with chronic, watery, non-bloody diarrhea. 

Histologic changes define the two types of microscopic colitis. Often this presentation of symptoms will lead to evaluation for other types of inflammatory bowel disease including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. The incidence has been increasing throughout northern Europe and northern North America, which is more common in females.[2]


There have been two possible causes of microscopic colitis theorized, and a genetic component that predisposes to the condition, including medications and smoking tobacco. Medications that have links as causative or that lead to flares include NSAIDs.[3][4] While this currently has the strongest link, other drugs also demonstrate correlations as potential causes including PPIs, especially lansoprazole, statins, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and pembrolizumab which is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy.[5][6][7]

Smoking may play a role in microscopic colitis, as it has been linked to multiple other inflammatory conditions as well. It has been linked to an increased risk of microscopic colitis and can lead to the development of microscopic colitis more than ten years earlier than in non-smokers.[8][9]

Celiac disease is another inflammatory bowel condition that primarily affects the upper GI system. This syndrome is associated with HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotype, which also correlates with microscopic colitis, similarly to celiac disease; the inflammatory process is similar between the two syndromes.[10]


The incidence of collagenous colitis ranges from 2.0 to 10.8 per 100000, and lymphocytic colitis ranges from 2.3 to 16 per 100000. There are higher incidences in northern Europe and the northern parts of North America.[11][12] Most patients receive their diagnosis around the age of 65, but approximately 25 percent of patients get diagnosed before 45.[12] This disease can happen in children but is very rare.[13] There is a female preponderance in both collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. The female to male ratio of collagenous colitis is 3.0 and is 1.9 in lymphocytic colitis.[14]

Several other diseases with autoimmune background have correlations with microscopic colitis. Like other aspects, it appears that concomitant autoimmune diseases are more common in patients with collagenous colitis when compared to lymphocytic colitis.[15][16] There have also been rare cases of concurrent microscopic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease, usually ulcerative colitis.[17] There have even been case reports of concurrent lymphocytic and collagenous colitis.[18]


The pathogenesis of microscopic colitis, while unclear, is likely multifactorial involving the immune response to luminal factors. The genetic susceptibility is unclear, though there have been reports of familial cases, and probably there is a genetic risk associated.[19] TGF (transforming growth factor) beta-1 has been shown to have increased expression in collagenous colitis which could have associations with the accumulation of collagen in the tissues.[20] There could also be a change in epithelial barrier function leading to increased permeability of the mucosa for antigens and bacteria to cause inflammation.[21] Inflammatory changes in the lamina propria are associated with the severity of symptoms, primarily diarrhea, secondary to decrease absorption of sodium chloride and active chloride secretion.


In general, both collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis present with inflammation within the mucosa. Specifically, in the lamina propria, there is mononuclear cell predominance, with few neutrophils and eosinophils. There are, however, other histological differences that are worth noting between the two types of microscopic colitis.

Collagenous colitis – A collagen band greater than 10 micrometers in diameter in the subepithelial layer defines this type of microscopic colitis.[22]

Lymphocytic colitis – 20 or more intraepithelial lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells, typically without crypt distortion, defines lymphocytic colitis[23]

Microscopic colitis not otherwise specified – This terminology is used to describe a subgroup of patients with typical symptoms such as diarrhea, increased cellular infiltrate, and either an abnormal collagenous layer or increased intraepithelial lymphocytes that do not match the above criteria.[24]

History and Physical

A typical patient with microscopic colitis will present with non-bloody, watery diarrhea that has been present for some time. As this condition definitively presents with chronic diarrhea, symptoms should be present with that definition which is three or more loose or watery stools daily lasting more than 4 weeks. Typically, the patient presenting with these symptoms will be middle-aged or older, and female, however, this can present anytime in life and both genders. Symptoms are normally between four to nine watery bowel movements daily, though there have been reports of severe disease with 15 or more bowel movements daily. Associated symptoms can be fecal urgency, incontinence, nocturnal episodes, and half of the patients will have abdominal discomfort or pain. As this is a form of inflammatory bowel disease, there are reports of other manifestations such as arthralgia, arthritis, and/or uveitis. Between the primary two types of microscopic colitis, collagenous colitis seems to be associated with more severe bowel inflammation and lymphocytic colitis appears to occur earlier in life.[25]


Hematological laboratory findings in microscopic colitis are nonspecific and typically will not guide you. Half of the patients will have an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mild anemia, and positive autoantibodies.[25] These antibodies include rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, antimitochondrial antibodies, and antithyroid antibodies.[26] While some levels of inflammatory markers, eosinophil protein X, it appears that myeloperoxidase and tryptase are elevated and/or detected in the stool of patients, but these findings have not yet received validation at this time.[27] Occasionally a patient will have a protein wasting form of diarrhea associated with hypoalbuminemia, and an albumin level should be a consideration.

Stool studies for evaluation should include Clostridium difficile toxin, stool cultures, Escherichia coli O157: H7 testing, microscopy for ova and parasites, and a Giardia stool antigen test. Additional testing to be considered can include celiac disease serology (tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody). In most cases, all stool studies described above will be negative, leading to further diagnostic evaluation.[28]

Endoscopic evaluation with mucosal biopsies is the next step of evaluation; this also will typically establish the diagnosis. The procedure of choice is a colonoscopy, with biopsies performed in the left and right colon. During endoscopy, the appearance of the colon tends to be normal, though there can be edema, erythema, friability, exudative lesions, or scarring. Microscopic colitis diagnosis is dependent upon biopsy and histopathological findings.[29]

Treatment / Management

The goal of management is to achieve remission, defined as less than three stools daily and no watery stools, and to improve quality of life. The first aspect of management is to stop any possible offending agents causing symptoms, which includes some medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and to avoid and/or stop smoking.[30]

Initial management of symptoms includes antidiarrheal agents such as loperamide.[31] These medications alone may be enough to control symptoms, but other medicines may be necessary for control. When using these medications, it is essential to complete an infectious workup first, as they can worsen symptoms of C. difficile infection. If the patient continues to have three or more stools daily with at least one being watery, the addition of a glucocorticoid such as budesonide is a recommended therapy. With budesonide, 6 to 8 weeks of therapy is typically necessary for complete resolution.[32] After this duration of therapy, the drug must be tapered. A typical dose starts at 9mg daily. Prednisone is another glucocorticoid that is an option for therapy; however, current research indicates that budesonide is more effective.

If patient symptoms continue despite the above therapy, additional agents may be needed. Cholestyramine at a dose of 4g four times per day may help until diarrhea resolves. Cholestyramine is a bile acid binding resin utilized for diarrhea with concurrent bile acid malabsorption, which can occur. If diarrhea continues to persist after 2 weeks, bismuth subsalicylate can be given at a dose of 524mg (3 tabs) 3 times daily.[33]

Some patient will continue to have symptoms despite the above treatment. It is important to realize that approximately 10 to 20 percent o patients are non-responders.[34] Other therapies then need to be pursued. Anti-tumor necrosis factor and immunomodulators currently have limited evidence from case series and need further research. Surgery is a mode of therapy reserved for patients that are refractory and intolerant to symptoms.

Currently, maintenance therapy is not recommended secondary to side effects with budesonide. However, if this is necessary, the lowest dose possible should be utilized, and the dose should not exceed 6mg daily. Patients can be treated intermittently with budesonide to induce remission as well.

Differential Diagnosis

Celiac disease can have a similar symptom profile of chronic diarrhea. Celiac disease should be tested for by serologic testing. If necessary, this can also be tested for by small bowel biopsy, which shows flattening of villi.

Crohn disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that typically will cause diarrhea. This particular disease typically will present with patchy colitis and has various other characteristics such as perianal disease, like fistulas of fissures. On biopsy, granulomas are generally present along with transmural inflammation.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that is diarrhea-predominant is also a consideration. IBS is typically considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Typically, symptoms of IBS include not only diarrhea but crampy abdominal pain that is improved by defecation and frequent changes in the consistency and frequency of bowel movements.


Many patients with microscopic colitis will have a chronic, intermittent course of disease symptoms. Diarrhea can sometimes resolve without treatment or will often resolve with treatment within weeks. Relapses of symptomatology are frequent. It is currently unclear if one form is worse than the other. At present, there is no associated increased risk of colorectal cancer with microscopic colitis.


Currently, there are no known complications of disease progression itself outside of recurrent symptoms. The primary concern would be complications of therapy with budesonide as this is a steroid with multiple complications associated with long term use.[35]

Deterrence and Patient Education

Microscopic colitis is one of the many causes of chronic diarrhea. It is diagnosed based on biopsy results obtained during colonoscopy. Symptom control and remission generally occur with medication management, but some patients will not find relief. Surgery is an option but should be avoided unless symptoms are severe and intolerable. Patients will typically have three3 or more bowel movements daily most of which are watery, and most patients will have at least nine bowel movements daily. The goal of therapy is three or fewer bowel movements daily with no watery bowel movements. Some known provoking factors of this disease include tobacco use, particularly smoking cigarettes, and NSAID use. Patients should be encouraged to stop smoking and to decrease or stop the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as ibuprofen. There is not currently a known association with an increased risk of colon cancer. Expect symptoms to recur, though it is important to note any change in symptoms for further evaluation.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Chronic diarrhea has an extensive differential diagnosis that includes microscopic colitis. It is imperative for nursing staff to be aware of a patient complaining of chronic diarrhea what the consistency, color, and associated symptoms are to advocate for further evaluation. A gastroenterologist will also be involved in these cases for evaluation. If the patient workup as an outpatient, depending upon the workup already performed the GI specialist will be instrumental in completing the workup with colonoscopy and biopsies. Primary care physicians and nurse practitioners will be the point of care leaders to diagnose and begin the workup. Pharmacists will be helping with the recommendation for antidiarrheal agents when it is known that the cause is not infectious, and for further recommendations for glucocorticoids.[36][37](Level II) All these disciplines need to work together as an interprofessional team to bring about optimal diagnosis, care, and clinical outcomes. [Level V]

Interested in Participating?

We are looking for contributors to author, edit, and peer review our vast library of review articles and multiple choice questions. In as little as 2-3 hours you can make a significant contribution to your specialty. In return for a small amount of your time, you will receive free access to all content and you will be published as an author or editor in eBooks, apps, online CME/CE activities, and an online Learning Management System for students, teachers, and program directors that allows access to review materials in over 500 specialties.

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor

This is an academic project designed to provide inexpensive peer-reviewed Apps, eBooks, and very soon an online CME/CE system to help students identify weaknesses and improve knowledge. We would like you to consider being an author or editor. Please click here to learn more. Thank you for you for your interest, the StatPearls Publishing Editorial Team.

Colitis, Collagenous And Lymphocytic - Questions

Take a quiz of the questions on this article.

Take Quiz
A 65-year-old female presents with a four month history of watery diarrhea and crampy abdominal pain. She has lost 12 pounds. The patient has no significant past medical history, medications, smoking, or consumption of alcohol. Colonoscopy is normal but biopsy shows mononuclear infiltrates with a subepithelial collagen band measuring 12 micrometers. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

Click Your Answer Below

Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.

Sign Up
A 58-year-old female presents with a complaint of multiple watery bowel movements for the last 9 months. She has no abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fevers, or chills. Her past medical history is significant for osteoarthritis of the knees and hypertension. She takes ibuprofen 600 mg two to three times daily for pain along with amlodipine 10 mg daily. Her serological workup is unrevealing. Fecal leukocytes and cultures are negative. She undergoes a colonoscopy which showed normal mucosa. Biopsies taken during the procedure show monocytic infiltrates with a focal area of 25 lymphocytes per 100 surface epithelial cells. Which of the following is the next step in the management of this patient?

Click Your Answer Below

Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.

Sign Up
A 53-year-old male presents to the clinic with a complaint of multiple watery bowel movements per day for the last 12 weeks. He denies any abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. His past medical history is significant for hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and hyperlipidemia. He takes lansoprazole, losartan, and atorvastatin at home. He smokes 1 pack per day and drinks 3-4 beers per week. His vital signs are within normal limits and the abdominal exam is benign. Stool microscopy and cultures are negative. The serological workup is also unremarkable. He undergoes a colonoscopy which revealed normal colonic mucosa. Biopsies taken during the procedure are still pending. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Click Your Answer Below

Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.

Sign Up
A 65-year-old female presents to the clinic with a complaint of intermittent watery diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain for the last few weeks. She has no tenesmus and no blood or mucus in her stools. She has been taking a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for rheumatoid arthritis for two years. Her vital signs are within normal limits. Her abdomen is soft but diffusely tender without any rebound or guarding. Which of the following will confirm her diagnosis?

Click Your Answer Below

Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.

Sign Up
A 66-year-old female presents to the clinic stating that she has had diarrhea for some time and that nothing seems to help. She has been looking online and believes that she has irritable bowel syndrome and wants to discuss possible treatments. She states her symptoms began nine months ago, with watery, non-bloody diarrhea 5-9 times per day. Her physical examination including vital signs is unremarkable. Her stool microscopy and cultures are negative. Endoscopic examination reveals normal mucosa of the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Endoscopic biopsies revealed multiple neutrophils with a thickened collagenous buildup that is 12 micrometers thick. Which of the following is the best initial therapy for this patient?

Click Your Answer Below

Would you like to access teaching points and more information on this topic?

Improve Content - Become an Author or Editor and get free access to the entire database, free eBooks, as well as free CME/CE as it becomes available. If interested, please click on "Sign Up" to register.

Purchase- Want immediate access to questions, answers, and teaching points? They can be purchased above at Apps and eBooks.

Sign Up

Colitis, Collagenous And Lymphocytic - References


Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic overlap of microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders., Guagnozzi D,Arias Á,Lucendo AJ,, Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 2016 Feb 24     [PubMed]
Cotter TG,Pardi DS, Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Microscopic Colitis. Current gastroenterology reports. 2017 Feb;     [PubMed]
Pardi DS, Diagnosis and Management of Microscopic Colitis. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2017 Jan;     [PubMed]
Verhaegh BP,de Vries F,Masclee AA,Keshavarzian A,de Boer A,Souverein PC,Pierik MJ,Jonkers DM, High risk of drug-induced microscopic colitis with concomitant use of NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors. Alimentary pharmacology     [PubMed]
Keszthelyi D,Penders J,Masclee AA,Pierik M, Is microscopic colitis a drug-induced disease? Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2012 Nov-Dec;     [PubMed]
Bonderup OK,Fenger-Grøn M,Wigh T,Pedersen L,Nielsen GL, Drug exposure and risk of microscopic colitis: a nationwide Danish case-control study with 5751 cases. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2014 Oct;     [PubMed]
Ahmed M,Francis G, Pembrolizumab-Induced Microscopic Colitis. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2018 Apr;     [PubMed]
Bonderup OK,Nielsen GL,Dall M,Pottegård A,Hallas J, Significant association between the use of different proton pump inhibitors and microscopic colitis: a nationwide Danish case-control study. Alimentary pharmacology     [PubMed]
Verhaegh BPM,Pierik MJ,Goudkade D,Cuijpers YSMT,Masclee AAM,Jonkers DMAE, Early Life Exposure, Lifestyle, and Comorbidity as Risk Factors for Microscopic Colitis: A Case-Control Study. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2017 Jun;     [PubMed]
Wickbom A,Nyhlin N,Montgomery SM,Bohr J,Tysk C, Family history, comorbidity, smoking and other risk factors in microscopic colitis: a case-control study. European journal of gastroenterology     [PubMed]
Fine KD,Do K,Schulte K,Ogunji F,Guerra R,Osowski L,McCormack J, High prevalence of celiac sprue-like HLA-DQ genes and enteropathy in patients with the microscopic colitis syndrome. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2000 Aug;     [PubMed]
Williams JJ,Kaplan GG,Makhija S,Urbanski SJ,Dupre M,Panaccione R,Beck PL, Microscopic colitis-defining incidence rates and risk factors: a population-based study. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2008 Jan;     [PubMed]
Bonderup OK,Wigh T,Nielsen GL,Pedersen L,Fenger-Grøn M, The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a 10-year pathology-based nationwide Danish cohort study. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2015 Apr;     [PubMed]
Józefczuk J,Wozniewicz BM, Clear cell colitis: a form of microscopic colitis in children. World journal of gastroenterology. 2008 Jan 14;     [PubMed]
Tong J,Zheng Q,Zhang C,Lo R,Shen J,Ran Z, Incidence, prevalence, and temporal trends of microscopic colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2015 Feb;     [PubMed]
Kao KT,Pedraza BA,McClune AC,Rios DA,Mao YQ,Zuch RH,Kanter MH,Wirio S,Conteas CN, Microscopic colitis: a large retrospective analysis from a health maintenance organization experience. World journal of gastroenterology. 2009 Jul 7;     [PubMed]
Koskela RM,Niemelä SE,Karttunen TJ,Lehtola JK, Clinical characteristics of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2004 Sep;     [PubMed]
Wickbom A,Bohr J,Nyhlin N,Eriksson A,Lapidus A,Münch A,Ung KA,Vigren L,Öst Å,Tysk C, Microscopic colitis in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease: a retrospective observational study and review of the literature. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2018 Apr;     [PubMed]
Christ AD,Meier R,Bauerfeind P,Wegmann W,Gyr K, [Simultaneous occurrence of lymphocytic gastritis and lymphocytic colitis with transition to collagenous colitis]. Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift. 1993 Jul 31;     [PubMed]
Abdo AA,Zetler PJ,Halparin LS, Familial microscopic colitis. Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie. 2001 May;     [PubMed]
Ståhle-Bäckdahl M,Maim J,Veress B,Benoni C,Bruce K,Egesten A, Increased presence of eosinophilic granulocytes expressing transforming growth factor-beta1 in collagenous colitis. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2000 Jul;     [PubMed]
Andersen T,Andersen JR,Tvede M,Franzmann MB, Collagenous colitis: are bacterial cytotoxins responsible? The American journal of gastroenterology. 1993 Mar;     [PubMed]
Lee E,Schiller LR,Vendrell D,Santa Ana CA,Fordtran JS, Subepithelial collagen table thickness in colon specimens from patients with microscopic colitis and collagenous colitis. Gastroenterology. 1992 Dec;     [PubMed]
Veress B,Löfberg R,Bergman L, Microscopic colitis syndrome. Gut. 1995 Jun;     [PubMed]
Chang F,Deere H,Vu C, Atypical forms of microscopic colitis: morphological features and review of the literature. Advances in anatomic pathology. 2005 Jul;     [PubMed]
Bohr J,Tysk C,Eriksson S,Abrahamsson H,Järnerot G, Collagenous colitis: a retrospective study of clinical presentation and treatment in 163 patients. Gut. 1996 Dec;     [PubMed]
Roth B,Gustafsson RJ,Ohlsson B, Auto-antibodies and their association with clinical findings in women diagnosed with microscopic colitis. PloS one. 2013;     [PubMed]
Lettesjö H,Hansson T,Peterson C,Ung KA,Ringström G,Abrahamsson H,Simrén M, Detection of inflammatory markers in stools from patients with irritable bowel syndrome and collagenous colitis. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2006 Jan;     [PubMed]
Mellander MR,Ekbom A,Hultcrantz R,Löfberg R,Öst Å,Björk J, Microscopic colitis: a descriptive clinical cohort study of 795 patients with collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2016;     [PubMed]
Kingham JG, Microscopic colitis. Gut. 1991 Mar;     [PubMed]
Beaugerie L,Pardi DS, Patients with drug-induced microscopic colitis should not be included in controlled trials assessing the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in microscopic colitis. Gastroenterology. 2009 Oct;     [PubMed]
Miehlke S,Aust D,Mihaly E,Armerding P,Böhm G,Bonderup O,Fernández-Bañares F,Kupcinskas J,Munck LK,Rehbehn KU,Nacak T,Greinwald R,Münch A, Efficacy and Safety of Budesonide, vs Mesalazine or Placebo, as Induction Therapy for Lymphocytic Colitis. Gastroenterology. 2018 Dec;     [PubMed]
Calabrese C,Fabbri A,Areni A,Zahlane D,Scialpi C,Di Febo G, Mesalazine with or without cholestyramine in the treatment of microscopic colitis: randomized controlled trial. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2007 Jun;     [PubMed]
Miehlke S,Heymer P,Bethke B,Bästlein E,Meier E,Bartram HP,Wilhelms G,Lehn N,Dorta G,DeLarive J,Tromm A,Bayerdörffer E,Stolte M, Budesonide treatment for collagenous colitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Gastroenterology. 2002 Oct;     [PubMed]
Levy A,Borren NZ,Maxner B,Tan W,Bellavance D,Staller K,Chung D,Khalili H,Ananthakrishnan AN, Cancer risk in microscopic colitis: a retrospective cohort study. BMC gastroenterology. 2019 Jan 5;     [PubMed]
Miehlke S,Verhaegh B,Tontini GE,Madisch A,Langner C,Münch A, Microscopic colitis: pathophysiology and clinical management. The lancet. Gastroenterology     [PubMed]
Nguyen GC,Smalley WE,Vege SS,Carrasco-Labra A, American Gastroenterological Association Institute Guideline on the Medical Management of Microscopic Colitis. Gastroenterology. 2016 Jan;     [PubMed]


The intent of StatPearls is to provide practice questions and explanations to assist you in identifying and resolving knowledge deficits. These questions and explanations are not intended to be a source of the knowledge base of all of medicine, nor is it intended to be a board or certification review of PA-Hospital Medicine. The authors or editors do not warrant the information is complete or accurate. The reader is encouraged to verify each answer and explanation in several references. All drug indications and dosages should be verified before administration.

StatPearls offers the most comprehensive database of free multiple-choice questions with explanations and short review chapters ever developed. This system helps physicians, medical students, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals identify education deficits and learn new concepts. StatPearls is not a board or certification review system for PA-Hospital Medicine, it is a learning system that you can use to help improve your knowledge base of medicine for life-long learning. StatPearls will help you identify your weaknesses so that when you are ready to study for a board or certification exam in PA-Hospital Medicine, you will already be prepared.

Our content is updated continuously through a multi-step peer review process that will help you be prepared and review for a thorough knowledge of PA-Hospital Medicine. When it is time for the PA-Hospital Medicine board and certification exam, you will already be ready. Besides online study quizzes, we also publish our peer-reviewed content in eBooks and mobile Apps. We also offer inexpensive CME/CE, so our content can be used to attain education credits while you study PA-Hospital Medicine.