Vitamin D


Article Author:
Krati Chauhan


Article Editor:
Martin Huecker


Editors In Chief:
Chaddie Doerr


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Kyle Blair
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Erin Hughes
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Navid Mahabadi
Hussain Sajjad
Steve Bhimji
Muhammad Hashmi
John Shell
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Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
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Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Daniyal Ameen
Altif Muneeb
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Komal Shaheen
Sandeep Sekhon


Updated:
10/21/2019 12:50:36 PM

Indications

Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concentration within the normal physiologic range for musculoskeletal health.[1][2][3]

The Endocrine Society, National and International Osteoporosis Foundation, and American Geriatric Society define vitamin D deficiency as the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin (25 OH D) of less than 30 ng/mL. The Endocrine Society recommends a preferred range of 40-60 ng/mL. To maintain this level, the Endocrine Society recommends intake of 400 to 1000 International Units (IU) daily for infants less than one year, 600 to 1000 IU for children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years and 1500 to 2000 IU for all adults.

Vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets and prevents children from reaching their peak bone mass and genetically determined height. In adults, vitamin D deficiency results in abnormal mineralization of the collagen matrix in bone referred to as osteomalacia. This collagen matrix is weak, does not provide adequate structural support, and increases the risk fracture. This abnormally mineralized matrix pushes the periosteum, a highly innervated structure, outward and results in aching bones, a common complaint in vitamin D deficient individuals. Vitamin D deficiency also results in muscle weakness and muscle pain. Patients complaints of generalized bone and muscle pain. Around 40% to 60% of patients with generalized myalgias and bone pain have vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D deficiency (level < 30 ng/mL) and insufficiency (level between 20 to 30 ng/mL) are a problem across the globe. Pregnant women, African Americans, Hispanics, obese adults, and children are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. In the United States, 50% of children ages 1 to 5 and 70% of children ages 6 to 11 have vitamin D deficiency. It is attributed to an increase in the incidence of obesity, a decrease in milk consumption and use of sun protection.[4][5][6]

Mechanism of Action

Vitamin D is a hormone obtained through dietary consumption and skin production. Ultraviolet B  (UVB) radiation, wavelength (290 to 315 nm) converts 7 dehydrocholesterol in the skin to previtamin D. This previtamin D undergoes heat isomerization and is converted to vitamin D. Vitamin D from the skin and diet is metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OH D), and 25 hydroxyvitamin D is used to assess vitamin D status. In the kidneys, 25 hydroxyvitamin D is converted to the biologically active form: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(1,25 (OH)) by the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitami D-1 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin is regulated by parathyroid, calcium, and phosphorus level.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D binds to vitamin D receptor, a hormone receptor present at the nucleus inside the cell. Gene transcription is modified through binding of vitamin D to its receptor, resulting in activation of certain genes and suppression of others. It stimulates intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption. In the absence of vitamin D, approximately 10% to 15% of dietary calcium and 60% of phosphorus is absorbed. In the presence of vitamin D, this percentage of absorption is increased to 30% to 40% for calcium and 80% for phosphorus. In the kidneys, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin promotes calcium reabsorption.

Vitamin D has a physiologic function outside calcium metabolism. Vitamin D receptor is present in the small intestine, colon, T and B lymphocytes, mononuclear cells, brain, and skin. It stimulates insulin production, modulates the function of activated T and B lymphocytes, prevents inflammatory bowel diseases, and affects myocardial contractility.

Topical 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is used for the treatment of psoriasis. It reduces scaling and erythema in psoriasis. Keratinocytes in the skin which function abnormally in psoriasis have vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D inhibits their proliferation and induces differentiation.

Administration

Vitamin D can be administered orally, or it can be made by the skin on UV exposure. A serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OH D) of at least 30 ng/ml (78 nmoL/L) is required to maintain the physiologic function of vitamin D. It is recommended to use 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OH D) as a measure of vitamin D status as it has a half-life of 2 weeks; whereas, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH)), the biologically active form, has a serum half-life of < 4 hours and should not be used to measure vitamin D status.

Factors that alter the amount of UVB radiation reaching the skin change cutaneous production of vitamin D. Melanin in the skin absorbs UVB radiation and prevents conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D. Hence, individuals with increased skin pigmentation have decreased cutaneous production of vitamin D and require a longer duration of exposure to UVB radiation to produce vitamin D. Sunscreen, which also absorbs UVB radiation, decreases cutaneous production of vitamin D. A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 8 reduces cutaneous production of UVB  by > 95% and a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 will reduce this to > 98%.

During winter, sun rays enter at a more oblique angle and a greater amount of  UVB radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer. Hence, less UVB radiation reaches the skin. For this reason, during the winter months, there is a decrease in the production of vitamin D.  Similarly at latitude > 37 degrees, there is a decrease in the UVB radiation reaching the skin which reduces vitamin D production. In the early morning and in the evening, the sun rays enter at an oblique angle and very little UVB is produced by the skin.

Vitamin D is fat soluble and stored in body fat. In obese individuals,  a greater amount of vitamin D is stored in fat, and less is available for biological functions. Hence obese people require larger units of vitamin D supplementation to maintain an adequate serum level of vitamin D.

Very few foods are a natural source of vitamin D. These include oily fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines. Foods which are fortified with vitamin D are milk and orange juice (100 units per 8 ounces serving) and some bread and cereals. An important source of oral vitamin D is vitamin D supplements, which are available both over the counter and through prescription. These are available in strengths of 1000 IU, 2000 IU, 5000 IU and 50,000 IU, which is available only through prescription.

Monitoring

It is recommended that the level of the circulating form of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) is checked at least twice a year: once in spring which will reflect low levels after the winter, and once in fall which will reflect higher levels after the summer and the dose should be adjusted accordingly.

Toxicity

Vitamin D intoxication is extremely rare. Vitamin D intoxication from sun exposure does not occur as the excess vitamin D is destroyed in the skin. The only way a person may get vitamin D toxicity is by ingestion of extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged period. Concentration > 150 ng/mL (325 nmoL/L) may result in vitamin D intoxication and is associated with hypercalcemia.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Primary care providers including nurse practitioners need to be aware that Vitamin D deficiency (level < 30 ng/mL) and insufficiency (level between 20 to 30 ng/mL) are a problem across the globe. Pregnant women, African Americans, Hispanics, obese adults, and children are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. In the United States, 50% of children ages 1 to 5 and 70% of children ages 6 to 11 have vitamin D deficiency. It is attributed to an increase in the incidence of obesity, a decrease in milk consumption and use of sun protection. Very few foods are a natural source of vitamin D. These include oily fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines. Foods which are fortified with vitamin D are milk and orange juice (100 units per 8 ounces serving) and some bread and cereals. An important source of oral vitamin D is vitamin D supplements, which are available both over the counter and through prescription. These are available in strengths of 1000 IU, 2000 IU, 5000 IU and 50,000 IU, which is available only through prescription.[7][8]


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Vitamin D - Questions

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The synthesis of vitamin D does not require activation by which of the following organs?



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How does vitamin D prevent osteoporosis?



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What is the daily-recommended daily dose of vitamin D for adults?



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Which of the following biochemical changes of vitamin D occurs in the kidneys?



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A previously healthy female develops kidney stones. She has had no previous stones or risk factors. She does take high doses of vitamins and supplements. What is the most probable diagnosis?



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Which does not describe vitamin D?



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Which of the following is not impacted by Vitamin D?



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Which vitamin is related to bone density?



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Which of the following requires vitamin D?



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Vitamin D - References

References

Stamm E,Acchini A,Da Costa A,Besse S,Christou F,Launay C,Balmer P,Humbert M,Nguyen S,Major K,Bosshard W,Büla C, [Year in review : geriatrics]. Revue medicale suisse. 2019 Jan 9;     [PubMed]
Abdel-Hady H,Yahia S,Megahed A,Mosbah A,Seif B,Nageh E,Bhattacharjee I,Aly H, Vitamin D and Inflammatory Mediators in Preterm Infants with Late-Onset Sepsis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. 2019 Jan 4;     [PubMed]
Hernigou P,Auregan JC,Dubory A, Vitamin D: part II; cod liver oil, ultraviolet radiation, and eradication of rickets. International orthopaedics. 2019 Jan 9;     [PubMed]
Tang H,Li D,Li Y,Zhang X,Song Y,Li X, Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis and Incident Diabetes among Nondiabetic Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. International journal of endocrinology. 2018;     [PubMed]
Fink C,Peters RL,Koplin JJ,Brown J,Allen KJ, Factors Affecting Vitamin D Status in Infants. Children (Basel, Switzerland). 2019 Jan 8;     [PubMed]
Häusler D,Weber MS, Vitamin D Supplementation in Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease-Enough Is Enough. International journal of molecular sciences. 2019 Jan 8;     [PubMed]
Bassatne A,Chakhtoura M,Saad R,Fuleihan GE, Vitamin D supplementation in obesity and during weight loss: a review of randomized controlled trials. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2019 Jan 4;     [PubMed]
Teymoori-Rad M,Shokri F,Salimi V,Marashi SM, The interplay between vitamin D and viral infections. Reviews in medical virology. 2019 Jan 6;     [PubMed]

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