Physiology, Smooth Muscle


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Brant Hafen


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Updated:
12/17/2018 9:25:46 AM

Introduction

Smooth muscle is found throughout the body where it serves a variety of functions. It is in the stomach and intestines where it helps with digestion and nutrient collection. It is found throughout the urinary system where it functions to help rid the body of toxins and works in electrolyte balance. It is found throughout arteries and veins where it plays a vital role in the regulation of blood pressure and tissue oxygenation. Without these vital functions, the body would not be able to maintain even its most basic functions.

Smooth muscle differs from skeletal muscle in a variety of ways, perhaps the most important being its ability to be contracted and controlled involuntarily. The nervous system can use smooth muscle to tightly regulate many of the bodies subsystems for life with no thought from the user. A person does not need to think about their blood pressure for it to adapt to increasing oxygen demands from exercise. The nervous system instead uses hormones, neurotransmitters, and other receptors to spontaneously control smooth muscle. 

Smooth muscle also plays an important role in the disease process throughout the body. The use of bronchodilators to relax airway smooth muscle is an important and life-saving treatment in asthmatics.[1] Likewise, medications like metoclopramide can stimulate and promote gastric emptying by increasing smooth muscle signaling. Perhaps one of the most well-known uses of medical therapy and smooth muscle is the use of nitrates in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.[2] It was shown that nitrates in combination with ace inhibitors can improve patient mortality.[3] The uniquely large impact that smooth muscle has throughout the body makes it an important topic for medical professionals to understand. As many treatments at their core rely on modifying the signaling pathways that affect smooth muscle.

Cellular

At a cellular level, smooth muscle can be described as an involuntary non-striated muscle. Smooth muscle consists of thick and thin filaments that are not arranged into sarcomeres, giving it a non-striated pattern. On microscopic examination, it will appear homogenous. Smooth muscle cytoplasm contains a large amount of actin and myosin. Actin and myosin act as the main proteins involved in muscle contraction. Actin filaments attach to dense bodies that are spread throughout the cell. Dense bodies can be observed under an electron microscope and appear dark. Another important structure is the calcium-containing sarcoplasmic reticulum which aids in sustaining contraction. The shape of smooth muscle is described as fusiform, which is described as being round in the center and tapering at each end. Smooth muscle can tense and relax but has greater elastic properties than striated muscle. This is important in organ systems like the urinary bladder where contractile tone must be preserved.

Development

Smooth muscle is derived from both mesoderm and neural crest cells. This is because smooth muscle contributes to many different tissues throughout the body. One unique feature of neural crest cells is that their migration occurs during embryological development. For this reason, numerous tissues throughout the body are derived from neural crest cells. Neural crest cells play an important role in the development of smooth muscle throughout the body, specifically in the regulation of blood vessels.

Vascular smooth muscle cells arise from multiple origins; this becomes medically significant because it may contribute to the site-specific localization of vascular diseases. For example, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms often present at specific vascular locations. In the past, this was thought to be related to hemodynamics and underlying vessel structure. However, there is increasing evidence that smooth muscle cell embryonic lineage may play a role in determining the location and presentation of disease.[4] Smooth muscle cell development is also an important factor in the development of the endothelial network. Vascular smooth muscle cells, sometimes referred to as mural cells, are important for vascular development and stability. Mural cells wrap around larger vessels and are heavily relied upon in the regulation of blood flow, endothelial network growth, and vessel stability. However, little is know about the effect of their developmental origins or the signaling process that leads to vessel development. The development of vascular smooth muscle cells is an important target for vascular tissue engineering and therapeutic revascularization. [5]

Organ Systems Involved

Smooth muscle can be found in all of the organ systems below:

  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Cardiovascular - blood vessel and lymphatic vessels
  • Renal - urinary bladder
  • Genital - uterus, male and female reproductive tracts
  • Respiratory tract
  • Integument - erector pili of the skin
  • Sensory - ciliary muscle and iris of the eye

Function

The main function of smooth muscle is contraction. Smooth muscle consists of two types: single-unit and multi-unit. Single-unit smooth muscle consists of multiple cells connected through connexins that can be stimulated in a synchronous pattern from only one synaptic input. Connexins allow for cell-to-cell communication between groups of single-unit smooth muscle cells. This intercellular communication allows ions and molecules to diffuse between cells giving rise to calcium waves. This unique property of single-unit smooth muscle allows for synchronous contraction to occur.[6] Multi-unit smooth muscle differs from single-unit in that each smooth-muscle cell receives its own synaptic input. This allows for the multi-unit smooth muscle to have a much finer control.

The function of smooth muscle can be expanded on a much larger scale to the organ systems it helps regulate. The functions of smooth muscle in each organ system is an incredibly broad topic and beyond the overall scope of this article. For simplicity, the basic functions of smooth muscle in the organ systems are listed below.

  • Gastrointestinal tract - propulsion of the food bolus
  • Cardiovascular - regulation of blood flow and pressure via vascular resistance
  • Renal - regulation of urine flow
  • Genital - contractions during pregnancy, propulsion of sperm
  • Respiratory tract - regulation of bronchiole diameter
  • Integument - raises hair with erector pili muscle
  • Sensory - dilation and constriction of the pupil as well as changing lens shape

Mechanism

Smooth muscle contraction is dependent on calcium influx. Calcium is increased within the smooth muscle cell through two different processes. First, depolarization, hormones, or neurotransmitters cause calcium to enter the cell through L-type channels located in the caveolae of the membrane. Intracellular calcium then stimulates the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by way of ryanodine receptors and IP3; this process is referred to as calcium-induced calcium release.[7] Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is not physically coupled to the ryanodine receptor. Once calcium has entered the cell it is free to bind calmodulin, which transforms into activated calmodulin. Calmodulin then activates the enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), MLCK then phosphorylates a regulatory light chain on myosin. Once phosphorylation has occurred, a conformational change takes place in the myosin head; this increases myosin ATPase activity which promotes interaction between the myosin head and actin. Cross-bridge cycling then occurs, and tension is generated. The tension generated is relative to the amount of calcium concentration within the cell. ATPase activity is much lower in smooth muscle than it is in skeletal muscle. This factor leads to the much slower cycling speed of smooth muscle. However, the longer period of contraction leads to a potentially greater force of contraction in smooth muscle. Smooth muscle contraction is enhanced even further through the use of connexins. Connexins allow for intercellular communication by allowing calcium and other molecules to flow to neighboring smooth muscle cells. This action allows for rapid communication between cells and a smooth contraction pattern.

Steps involved in smooth muscle cell contraction:

  1. Depolarization of membrane or hormone/neurotransmitter activation
  2. L-type voltage-gated calcium channels open
  3. Calcium-induced calcium release from the SR
  4. Increased intracellular calcium
  5. Calmodulin binds calcium
  6. Myosin light chain kinase activation
  7. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain
  8. Increase myosin ATPase activity
  9. Myosin-P binds actin 
  10. Cross-bridge cycling leads to muscle tone

Dephosphorylation of myosin light chains terminates smooth muscle contraction. Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is phosphorylated during its activation. This creates a potential difficulty in that simply reducing calcium levels will not produce muscle relaxation. Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), instead, is responsible for dephosphorylation of the myosin light chains, ultimately leading to smooth muscle relaxation. 

Another important clinical aspect of smooth muscle relaxation is the mechanism of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is formed via nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells; it is then able to diffuse out of the endothelium into smooth muscle cells. Nitric oxide then induces the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by binding to and activating the enzyme guanylyl cyclase. In smooth muscle cells, the increase in cGMP will lead to stimulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase which in turn activates MLCP, leading to dephosphorylation of myosin light chains and eventual smooth muscle relaxation. 

Smooth muscle action potentials are unique in that membrane potential acts to initiate or modulate contraction. As such graded membrane response can be stimulated by multiple factors including local humoral factors, circulating hormones, or mechanical stimulation like stretching of the cells. Action potentials in smooth muscle cells are slower than skeletal action potentials, and they can last almost fifty times as long. This is thought to occur because calcium channels in smooth muscle cells open slower than skeletal muscle. This, in turn, leads to slow repolarization of smooth muscle as potassium channels are also slow to react. Sodium channels may also be present on the smooth muscle membrane and function by increasing the rate of depolarization and thus can aid in the activation of calcium channels. 

Some smooth muscle cells also display the ability to form a spontaneous pacemaker current. This pacemaker current, for example, is maintained in the intestines by the interstitial cells of Cajal. The pacemaker current represents repetitive oscillations in the membrane potential that occur in several cycles. These slow waves of membrane potential fluctuation are unique in that they are not responsible for contraction of the intestines. It is thought that at resting membrane potential some voltage-gated calcium channels become active, an influx of calcium will then propagate a slow wave at a specific threshold. If the amplitude of the slow wave is high enough, L-type calcium channels will open, leading to contraction.[7] Sodium may also play a role in the oscillating electrical activity. Calcium influx stimulates Na-Ca exchange which leads to an influx of sodium; this will effectively increase the rate of the Na-K pump. This all remains unique because the oscillations of the membrane potential and slow wave activity are generated without the influence of the central nervous system. The slow waves are therefore able to allow the smooth muscle to remain tonic without having to maintain continuous action potential firings.

Smooth muscle has also been observed to contract without any action potential. In multi-unit smooth muscle, action potentials usually do not occur. An example would be the smooth muscle in the iris of the eye where norepinephrine and ACh generate a depolarization that is called a junctional potential. In these situations, the neurotransmitters themselves generate the changes in the smooth muscle to cause the contraction. The junctional potential eventually triggers an influx of calcium through L-type channels. In some situations, the neurotransmitters may activate a G-protein which activates phospholipase C generating IP3; IP3 is then able to trigger calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. [8]

Smooth muscle contractions may be required to last for a long time. The metabolic demand of sustained contraction would be far too costly if smooth muscle contractions occurred similarly to skeletal muscle. The muscle would most likely fatigue as intracellular supplies of ATP depleted. The mechanism that allows the smooth muscle to maintain high-tension at low energy consumption is termed the latch state.[9] Even as levels of phosphorylated myosin light chain kinase decrease, smooth muscle tone will remain high.

Related Testing

Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) are serum markers that can be elevated in some forms of auto-immune disease. They are typically associated with auto-immune hepatitis but may also be elevated in primary sclerosing cholangitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The antibodies themselves are directed against actin, troponin, and tropomyosin.

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of smooth muscle is incredibly diverse, and the limited scope of this article will not be able to fully cover it in detail. A brief description of how different organ systems may be affected by smooth muscle pathologies is listed below. Much of the material that is covered is also applicable to other diseases that may not be mentioned specifically in this article. As a clinician, it is more important to be able to recognize when smooth muscle may play a role in a disease process.

The gastrointestinal tract is largely dependent on smooth muscle for motility. Any damage to the smooth muscle of the intestines may have a devastating effect on the body. This loss of motility is termed gastroparesis. Many conditions can impact gastric motility including nerve dysfunction, collagen disease, muscular dystrophies, amyloidosis, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, Chagas disease, neuropathy, and so on. A spectrum of disease can occur in these patients; they may present asymptomatic, or they may present in crisis with functional gastric obstruction.[10] Gastric disorders should always immediately raise suspicion that smooth muscle physiology is impacted.

In the renal system, vascular smooth muscle is found in the kidneys, throughout the ureters, and in the bladder. At the level of the kidneys, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction is associated with chronic kidney disease and can lead to end-stage renal disease.[11] Damage to the ureters may also damage smooth muscle and impair ureter function as in the case of nephrolithiasis. The functionality of the bladder relies almost exclusively on the unique properties of smooth muscle. Damage to any of the systems that regulate smooth muscle in the bladder can lead to loss of tone and subsequent neurogenic bladder disease; this becomes more complex when you consider the effects such a disease has on a person's quality of life. [12]

In the genital system, smooth muscle is often thought of in regards to its role in childbirth. The uterus is lined with smooth muscle which creates the contractile force during childbirth. Many pharmaceuticals have been created specifically to help enhance smooth muscle contraction at the time of birth. While this may not represent a true pathology, it is important to recognize that physicians can use a knowledge of smooth muscle physiology to prevent pathologies from occurring to begin with. In males, fertility is also maintained by the contractions of smooth muscle in the epididymis and vas deferens. Without the contractile nature of smooth muscle, spermatozoa would never be able to assist in fertilization. This becomes important because of the apparent lack of information on the possible pathologic effects of smooth muscle and infertility. For example, many medications that are frequently used by males impact smooth muscle contractility and, therefore, may also impact fertility. Examples include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, nitrates, adrenergic receptor antagonists and agonists, psychotropic drugs, anticholinergic drugs, calcium antagonists, and ace inhibitors. [13]

Perhaps the most well know pathophysiology of smooth muscle occurs in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Within the cardiovascular system, smooth muscle helps to regulate blood flow by controlling the diameter of the vessel. As previously discussed, vascular pathologies of smooth muscle can have devasting effects on the body and lead to significant pathology. Atherosclerosis, once thought to be only a function of hemodynamics and vessel structure, has more recently been linked to smooth muscle development.[4] Research has even shown that continuous vascular smooth muscle activation can lead to the formation of pulmonary hypertension.[14] Within the lungs, pathologic activation of smooth muscle can lead to the development of asthma. Asthma occurs when smooth muscle constriction leads to obstruction of the airway. Recent studies have shown that the smooth muscle layer may be increased in thickness before the onset of asthma even occurs, from which a genetic link may be derived. [15]

Clinical Significance

It is estimated that in the year 2013 health care costs associated with asthma reached $81.9 billion in the United States.[16] With such a large health care burden it is astonishing to realize that asthma results from something as simple as smooth muscle contraction. Smooth muscle is an integral part of the human body; its function is required for life and can be found in almost every organ system. In the cardiovascular system, smooth muscle is used in vessels to maintain blood pressure and flow; in the lungs, it opens and closes airways; in the gastrointestinal system it plays a role in motility and nutrition collection; and yet it still serves a purpose in almost every other organ system as well. The wide distribution of smooth muscle throughout the body and its many unique properties make it imperative for medical professionals to have an in-depth understanding of its physiology, function, and disease applications.

From a functional aspect, smooth muscle physiology is responsible for maintaining and preserving every vital sign. Regardless of whether a patient presents with an acute emergent disease or a chronic disease, it is likely that smooth muscle has played some role in its development. In an acute setting, many life-saving therapies directly target smooth muscle. In these settings, a firm foundation and understanding of smooth muscle will help health professionals save lives. An even broader understanding of smooth muscle will help clinicians to increase the quality of life of their patients. As part of the biopsychosocial model, it is also important to take into consideration the psycho-social factors that may be overlooked with the diseases of smooth muscle; for example, a patient diagnosed with neurogenic bladder disease may become socially isolated to avoid the embarrassment associated with their disease state. When approaching smooth muscle dysfunction, it is important for healthcare providers to appreciate the many facets of how the disease will impact their patients.

As with all aspects of medicine, a continuing amount of research will likely change our future understanding of smooth muscle and its overall effects on disease. Current research into smooth muscle has shown promise in future implications, such as restoring endothelial tissue which in the future could lead to new ways to encourage revascularization. Even small changes in understanding like this could have an immeasurable impact in the treatment and mortality of cardiovascular disease in the future.[4] While smooth muscle physiology remains an exceptionally deep topic, a solid understanding of its impact on healthcare, even at the most basic level, will give healthcare professionals tools to provide better healthcare outcomes now and into the future.


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Physiology, Smooth Muscle - Questions

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A student is studying for a comprehensive board examination and has increased their caffeine intake. The student notices an increase in their heart rate and bowel movements. While studying, the student reads that caffeine plays a role in the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The student's increased heart rate and gastrointestinal motility are likely caused by which of the following?



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You are assisting a general surgeon with a complex gastric resection. During the procedure, you are asked to place retraction on a section of bowel while the surgeon sutures. While retracting, you place a normal physiologic stress on the bowel which in turn triggers its stretch receptors. The expected response of the smooth muscle is which of the following?



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A 72-year-old female presents after a fall 2 days ago. The patient reports she initially was without symptoms but has developed a worsening headache accompanied by neck and back pain over the past 24 hours. A physical exam is positive for a stiff neck and a right pupil that is dilated 4 mm more than the left pupil. The control of the muscle involved in this patient's dilated eye depends on which of the following?



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A 74-year-old female presents to the clinic for follow up after a hospitalization for a fall. She reports that the fall fractured her "spinal column" and led to a ruptured disc, requiring an extended recovery period in the hospital. During the hospitalization, she had a catheter placed due to immobility. Since coming home she has noticed increased urinary frequency and urgency. She is no longer continent and reports that she dribbles urine almost constantly and has resulted to wearing diapers. She is frustrated with the situation. Your explanation of her current condition will focus on the loss of which of the following related to her bladder?



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As part of a research study, you dissect out a portion of visceral smooth muscle from a mouse. The muscle is given an electrical impulse to stimulate contraction. Afterward, the muscle returns to a normal baseline with a set tone. Wave recording of the muscle demonstrates a rhythmic pattern. What is the etiology of the oscillatory type of electrical activity recorded from the visceral smooth muscle?



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Physiology, Smooth Muscle - References

References

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Giuseppe C,Paul J,Hans-Ulrich I, Use of nitrates in ischemic heart disease. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2015     [PubMed]
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Bolton TB,Large WA, Are junction potentials essential? Dual mechanism of smooth muscle cell activation by transmitter released from autonomic nerves. Quarterly journal of experimental physiology (Cambridge, England). 1986 Jan     [PubMed]
Murphy RA,Rembold CM, The latch-bridge hypothesis of smooth muscle contraction. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 2005 Oct     [PubMed]
Chokhavatia S,Anuras S, Neuromuscular disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The American journal of the medical sciences. 1991 Mar     [PubMed]
Iwamoto Y,Maruhashi T,Kajikawa M,Oda N,Kishimoto S,Matsui S,Hashimoto H,Aibara Y,Yusoff FM,Hidaka T,Kihara Y,Chayama K,Noma K,Nakashima A,Goto C,Higashi Y, Chronic kidney disease is associated with vascular smooth muscle dysfunction but not with endothelial dysfunction. International journal of cardiology. 2018 Mar 1     [PubMed]
Ginsberg D, The epidemiology and pathophysiology of neurogenic bladder. The American journal of managed care. 2013     [PubMed]
Elfgen V,Mietens A,Mewe M,Hau T,Middendorff R, Contractility of the epididymal duct - function, regulation and potential drug effects. Reproduction (Cambridge, England). 2018 Jun 11     [PubMed]
Khalil RA, . 2010     [PubMed]
James AL,Noble PB,Drew SA,Mauad T,Bai TR,Abramson MJ,McKay KO,Green FHY,Elliot JG, Airway smooth muscle proliferation and inflammation in asthma. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2018 Jul 19     [PubMed]
Nurmagambetov T,Kuwahara R,Garbe P, The Economic Burden of Asthma in the United States, 2008-2013. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2018 Mar     [PubMed]

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