Paleolithic Diet


Article Author:
Hima Challa


Article Editor:
Kalyan Uppaluri


Editors In Chief:
Silvio de Melo Jr.
Vittorio Giuliano
Truptesh Kothari


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Hussain Sajjad
Steve Bhimji
Muhammad Hashmi
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes


Updated:
5/29/2019 11:39:32 PM

Introduction

A Paleolithic diet is essentially the diet that humans ate during the Paleolithic or “Old Stone Age” era. This period, about 2.5 million years ago, is marked by anatomic and physiologic changes that were taking place in in the human body as people adaptated to climate change, learned to control of fire, and began to use stone tools. Anthropologists hold that the diet of our ancestors heavily influenced their neural expansion, increased brain size, and reduced gastrointestinal tract size.[1][2][3]

Function

So, how did this interest in a prehistoric diet start? And what do health care professionals need to know about the ancient diet pattern's resurgence?

The last hundred years have seen a boom of industrialization, leading to the growth of a fast-paced economy. Though industrialization is essential for human advancement, it also has given rise to ultra-processed, low cost, readily available foods to sustain a growing population. A consequence of consuming these foods is a doubling or tripling in the rate of chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Scientists and laypeople alike have started looking at solutions for these epidemics; alternatives focus not just on medications but the adoption of significant dietary and lifestyle changes. This quest for the "ideal" diet for health and longevity has brought to light several ancient cuisines, some have been thoroughly studied, like the “Mediterranean Diet.”

 The concept of Paleolithic diet started in the 1970s, and its popularity soared after the publishing of the book The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat by Loren Cordain in 2002. Since then, the public has shown a tremendous interest in this diet, also called the “cave man diet” or “Stone Age diet.” Many cookbooks have been published claiming to have Paleolithic recipes. The idea behind this diet is that if we revert back to what our prehistoric ancestors ate and reject the modern-day, processed diet, our health outcomes would change significantly. The challenge, however, with this diet is that is conflicting versions of this diet are presented to the public, creating confusion.

Thankfully, several breakthrough developments in the field of anthropology in the last few years have helped dieters and practitioners better understand the Paleolithic diet. Perhaps one of the most popular misconceptions is that our ancient ancestors were mainly carnivores when, in fact, they mostly ate a plant-based diet. The diet was very broad and was also influenced by the geographical location of the group and food availability.[4][5][6][7]

Scientists and anthropologists have been able to reconstruct this diet based on the evidence gathered from archeological remains and studying the modern nomadic tribes. The prehistoric man is also known as the “hunter and gatherer “as agriculture had not started yet. In the modern world, we still have about a dozen or so tribes still following the same hunter and gatherer concept. These tribes are located in different parts of the world and in all climatic terrains. The most extensively studied tribe is the Hadza tribe from central Tanzania because the African continent is considered the hallmark of human evolution where the majority of prehistoric fossils are found. Since the Hadza group resides in the tropical forest, their diet mainly consists of plants, fruits, tubers, and game animals. One of the most popular food groups for them is honey. There also are studies available on some Nordic tribes, who sustain mainly on fish and other seafood.[8][9][10]

Based on these findings, the Paleolithic diet most likely consisted of the following-

  • Plants - These included tubers, seeds, nuts, wild grown barley that was pounded as flour, legumes, and flowers. Since they had discovered fire and using stone tools, it is believed that they were able to process and cook these foods.
  • Animals - Because they were more readily available, lean small game animals were the main animals eaten. As per some estimates, animal products contributed to only about 3% of the whole diet. Animals were not yet domesticated so dairy products were probably not included.
  • Seafood - The diet included shellfish and other smaller fish. It was a major component of a diet in the coastal regions.
  • Insects - A variety of insects and their products, including honey, honeycombs, were eaten. They were a major fallback food. Recently, the interest in edible insects, called entmophagy, has increased. The United Nations released a list of edible insects as an alternative to meat products as the insects are said to provide similar nutrition benefits. 

Clinical Significance

It is clear that they did eat a variety of high-quality foods that were rich in nutrients and fiber. Compared to this diet, the diet we eat today provides much less variety and is loaded with artificial sugars and salt.

Since it is impossible to mimic the exact diet that our Stone Age ancestors ate, we can reasonably take some key foods and adapt them to a modern lifestyle.

There has not been enough evidence to complete as many clinical trials on a aleolithic diet as compared to some of the other diets. Nevertheless, there have been some interesting studies.

Whalen KA, et al. have done studies on the Paleolithic Diet, comparing it to the Mediterranean Diet. In one study of over 2,000 people, participants in each group consumed the list of foods that would fit into each diet pattern. The results were similar in both the groups, although the consumers of a Paleolithic diet decreased their all-cause mortality, decreased oxidative stress, and also decreased mortality from cancers, specifically colon cancers.

Another study by Blomquist C, et al. involved women who were postmenopausal and also overweight. They found that a Paleolithic diet decreased lipogenesis promoting factors, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced circulating triglycerides.

The Paleolithic diet also has been studied as a supplement for therapeutic management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. An interesting article by Dr. Jacob Eaton and Dr. Lara Lannotti, strong advocates and pioneers of the Paleolithic Diet, focuses on the mismatch of genomic evolution and the modern day diet. As discussed above, the diet that our ancestors ate has had a major impact on our genetic evolution. Since today's diet no longer contains the same variety and nutrition, however, there is an increase in chronic diseases caused by both “undernutrition” and “overnutrition.” Multiple other smaller-scale studies confirm similar results.

Physicians across the globe have been trying to incorporate healthy dietary and lifestyle habits into the therapeutic regimen of their patients. A Paleolithic diet is certainly a reasonable option for physicians to choose as it advocates healthy eating.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The diet mania continues and recently the paleolithic diet has been hyped up as a cure for most of humankind's health problems. Clinicians should not fall into the trap of "diet mania' but instead to improve patient outcomes should encourage patients to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, discontinue smoking and be physically active. Like all diets, the paleolithic diet has its pros and cons, depending on what one reads. This diet first used by our human ancestors may have been good for the digestive tract but most people were dead in their 30s-40s and so, of course, they never developed any serious chronic disorders.

Physicians, pharmacists, nurses and dietitians should encourage a healthy diet, similar to a mediterranean diet, which has good clinical evidence to back it up.


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Paleolithic Diet - Questions

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A patient reports they are eating vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and excludes as dairy, grains, sugar, processed oils, legumes, and salt. At least half of daily calories are from seafood and lean meat. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts and seeds account for about 15% of calories. What is the term for this diet?



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A group of patients with metabolic syndrome is started on the Paleolithic diet. This includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and excludes as dairy, grains, sugar, processed oils, legumes, and salt. At least half of daily calories are from seafood and lean meat. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts and seeds account for only 15% of calories. Which of the following are most likely to be observed at six months?



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Which of the following foods can be classified as "Paleolithic" ?



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Based on current research, Paleolithic diet is being used as an adjunctive tool for which of the following diseases?



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Which of the following group of people have a diet pattern which can be closely associated with "Paleolithic diet"?



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Paleolithic Diet - References

References

Otten J,Ryberg M,Mellberg C,Andersson T,Chorell E,Lindahl B,Larsson C,Holst JJ,Olsson T, Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women. European journal of endocrinology. 2019 May 1;     [PubMed]
Ghaedi E,Mohammadi M,Mohammadi H,Ramezani-Jolfaie N,Malekzadeh J,Hosseinzadeh M,Salehi-Abargouei A, Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.). 2019 Apr 30;     [PubMed]
Churuangsuk C,Griffiths D,Lean MEJ,Combet E, Impacts of carbohydrate-restricted diets on micronutrient intakes and status: A systematic review. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2019 Apr 22;     [PubMed]
Morin E,Meier J,El Guennouni K,Moigne AM,Lebreton L,Rusch L,Valensi P,Conolly J,Cochard D, New evidence of broader diets for archaic {i}Homo{/i} populations in the northwestern Mediterranean. Science advances. 2019 Mar;     [PubMed]
Chenard CA,Rubenstein LM,Snetselaar LG,Wahls TL, Nutrient Composition Comparison between a Modified Paleolithic Diet for Multiple Sclerosis and the Recommended Healthy U.S.-Style Eating Pattern. Nutrients. 2019 Mar 1;     [PubMed]
Hardy K, Paleomedicine and the use of plant secondary compounds in the Paleolithic and Early Neolithic. Evolutionary anthropology. 2019 Mar;     [PubMed]
Wahls TL,Chenard CA,Snetselaar LG, Review of Two Popular Eating Plans within the Multiple Sclerosis Community: Low Saturated Fat and Modified Paleolithic. Nutrients. 2019 Feb 7;     [PubMed]
Britto S,Kellermayer R, Carbohydrate Monotony as Protection and Treatment for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of Crohn's     [PubMed]
Evans RDR,Antonelou M,Henderson S,Walsh SB,Salama AD, Emerging evidence of an effect of salt on innate and adaptive immunity. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2018 Dec 5;     [PubMed]
Genoni A,Lo J,Lyons-Wall P,Boyce MC,Christophersen CT,Bird A,Devine A, A Paleolithic diet lowers resistant starch intake but does not affect serum trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations in healthy women. The British journal of nutrition. 2019 Feb;     [PubMed]

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