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This is an academic project designed to provide inexpensive peer-reviewed Apps, eBooks, and very soon an online CME/CE system to help students identify weaknesses and improve knowledge. We would like you to consider being an author or editor. Please click here to learn more. Thank you for you for your interest, the StatPearls Publishing Editorial Team.

EMS, Altitude Related Conditions and Treatment - References


Burns P,Lipman GS,Warner K,Jurkiewicz C,Phillips C,Sanders L,Soto M,Hackett P, Altitude Sickness Prevention with Ibuprofen Relative to Acetazolamide. The American journal of medicine. 2019 Feb;     [PubMed]
Luks AM,McIntosh SE,Grissom CK,Auerbach PS,Rodway GW,Schoene RB,Zafren K,Hackett PH, Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2014 update. Wilderness     [PubMed]
Oelz O,Maggiorini M,Ritter M,Noti C,Waber U,Vock P,Bärtsch P, Prevention and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema by a calcium channel blocker. International journal of sports medicine. 1992 Oct;     [PubMed]
Deshwal R,Iqbal M,Basnet S, Nifedipine for the treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema. Wilderness     [PubMed]
Austin D, Gammow bag for acute mountain sickness. Lancet (London, England). 1998 Jun 13;     [PubMed]
Marković D,Kovacević H, Recompression therapy of mountain sickness. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2002 Mar;     [PubMed]
Freeman K,Shalit M,Stroh G, Use of the Gamow Bag by EMT-basic park rangers for treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema and high-altitude cerebral edema. Wilderness     [PubMed]
Hackett PH,Roach RC, High-altitude illness. The New England journal of medicine. 2001 Jul 12;     [PubMed]
Roach RC,Hackett PH,Oelz O,Bärtsch P,Luks AM,MacInnis MJ,Baillie JK, The 2018 Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Score. High altitude medicine     [PubMed]
Pennardt A, High-altitude pulmonary edema: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Current sports medicine reports. 2013 Mar-Apr;     [PubMed]


The intent of StatPearls is to provide practice questions and explanations to assist you in identifying and resolving knowledge deficits. These questions and explanations are not intended to be a source of the knowledge base of all of medicine, nor is it intended to be a board or certification review of EMS-Paramedic. The authors or editors do not warrant the information is complete or accurate. The reader is encouraged to verify each answer and explanation in several references. All drug indications and dosages should be verified before administration.

StatPearls offers the most comprehensive database of free multiple-choice questions with explanations and short review chapters ever developed. This system helps physicians, medical students, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals identify education deficits and learn new concepts. StatPearls is not a board or certification review system for EMS-Paramedic, it is a learning system that you can use to help improve your knowledge base of medicine for life-long learning. StatPearls will help you identify your weaknesses so that when you are ready to study for a board or certification exam in EMS-Paramedic, you will already be prepared.

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