Research Study


Article Author:
Marlon Bayot


Article Editor:
Steven Tenny


Editors In Chief:
Alexandra Caley
Sameh Boktor


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Kyle Blair
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Erin Hughes
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Navid Mahabadi
Hussain Sajjad
Steve Bhimji
Muhammad Hashmi
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Daniyal Ameen
Altif Muneeb
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Komal Shaheen
Sandeep Sekhon


Updated:
12/28/2018 6:43:21 PM

Definition/Introduction

A research study is a scientific means of examining the characteristics of variables to further our understanding of a particular subject or topic.  The subject or topic of study can include such things as a theory, ideology, or principle, medication, tool, device, process or health intervention. A research study can be done to describe variables and/or to determine the association of exposure and outcome variables regarding the research topic.[1]

Research studies are dichotomized into either a qualitative study or a quantitative study.[2][3] Qualitative studies gather non-numerical data, whereas quantitative research involves collectings numerical data.  Research studies also subdivide into either interventional studies or non-interventional (observational) studies.  For interventional research studies, the researcher performs some intervention or manipulation of one or more groups in the research study and compares the outcomes to the other groups to help analyze the variables of interest.  For non-interventional research studies (often called observational research studies, cohort studies, etc.) the research collects the variables of interest without any intervention or outside influence by the researcher on the groups under study. Other classifications of research studies exist depending on the purpose and utility of the study,[4] examples include health systems research and operational research.[5]

Issues of Concern

One of the primary concerns in doing research is the identification and formulation of the research problem (i.e., research question).[6] The research problem should be ethical, researchable, significant, and feasible. In medicine, the goal of the research is not only to add relevant findings to the scientific body of knowledge but also to provide a beneficial, useful contribution to stakeholders, particularly the patients.

The second area of concern for research studies is selecting the correct research study to perform.  Many times descriptive and qualitative research must first take place to produce a robust, significant and feasible research hypothesis for later quantitative research methods.[7]  Additionally, different research study types have different levels of strength and risk of bias as delineated in the hierarchy of research study designs.[8]

Operational research has become useful in recent years, especially in the implementation of health programs. The focus of this study is on systems and services with the goal of improving efficiency and effectivity of specific processes adapted in health systems.[9] For public health practitioners, however, research objectives must be clearly distinguished from the program or project objectives.[10] Research objectives, in the context of operational research or any study types, must be directed to the development of new knowledge; unlike program objectives which dwell more into carrying out the actual projects and activities.

Clinical Significance

The significance of research studies and its findings collectively support both clinical and public health needs. The discovery of new medicines and new treatment modalities for specific diseases can be made using randomized clinical (control) trials, more commonly termed as RCTs.[11] Public health, both as a medical and a social science, can choose from a wide range of qualitative studies, descriptive, analytic, community-based trials[12], and operations researches, among others, to explore and describe the characteristics of certain groups of populations and its associations to the disease process or a particular health intervention, yielding findings that will inform policymakers and stakeholders.

In clinical settings, case studies and case series can be used by clinicians, surgeons, and other clinical specialists to scientifically document and describe the occurrence of rare diseases.[13] Researchers can perform studies to determine the association of exposure variables or risk factors in rare diseases or cohort studies to investigate rare exposure variables present in the study population. Meanwhile, studies such as meta-analysis and systematic review are good choices for researchers who want to summarize the results of previous research findings, in quantitative and qualitative means, respectively.[14][15] Mixed methods are employed to combine and exhaust the utility of the research type or study design combinations (e.g., quantitative and qualitative studies).[16]

Research studies can be both simple and complex; thus, can be performed in several ways which must be consistently systematic and scientific. The acquisition of new research findings will eventually find utility in the application of evidence-based medicine (EBM).[17] Research study must be carried out within the walls of medical ethics, free of bias and primarily geared towards the welfare of our patients rather than just merely the expedition of science.[18]


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Research Study - Questions

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A researcher designs a study to evaluate the development of infants with cerebral palsy borne to diabetic mothers. The children will be observed from birth to the age of 5 years. What kind of study is this?



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A physical therapy practice follows in which counties patients reside. The division of data into these groups is what kind of level of measurement?



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What should be the first step before starting a research study?



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A research study is being designed to study the use of electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle to increase strength in subjects without abnormalities. Which of the following requirements for subjects would be unethical?



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A study comparing the measurements of knee range of motion using a goniometer taken by several providers is examining which of the following?



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Which of the following is the goal of the International HapMap Project?



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Which of the following is the type of study being used in the HapMap research where haplotypes of individuals with a disease are compared to the haplotypes of a comparable group of individuals without a disease?



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Which of the following is the primary purpose of research?



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Which agency has the focus of promoting excellence in nursing education to build a strong and diverse nursing workforce to advance the nation's health?



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What is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of research?



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Which of these is an early step in the research process:



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Which method is most used when investigating human behavior?



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Which of the following areas contains the core principles of standardization, integration, and sharing, according to the National Institute of Mental Health?



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Which portion of a research paper provides the specifics of the writer's work?



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Select the choice LEAST applicable to "human subject" protections in research:



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Select the choice which is FALSE concerning the case manager in the role of researcher:



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Research Study - References

References

Röhrig B,du Prel JB,Wachtlin D,Blettner M, Types of study in medical research: part 3 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. 2009 Apr;     [PubMed]
Austin Z,Sutton J, Qualitative research: getting started. The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy. 2014 Nov;     [PubMed]
Watson R, Quantitative research. Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987). 2015 Apr 1;     [PubMed]
Kapoor MC, Types of studies and research design. Indian journal of anaesthesia. 2016 Sep;     [PubMed]
Süt N, Study designs in medicine. Balkan medical journal. 2014 Dec;     [PubMed]
Farrugia P,Petrisor BA,Farrokhyar F,Bhandari M, Practical tips for surgical research: Research questions, hypotheses and objectives. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 2010 Aug;     [PubMed]
Grimes DA,Schulz KF, Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do. Lancet (London, England). 2002 Jan 12;     [PubMed]
Burns PB,Rohrich RJ,Chung KC, The levels of evidence and their role in evidence-based medicine. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2011 Jul;     [PubMed]
Enarson DA, Is operational research true science? What should it be used for? Public health action. 2013 Sep 21;     [PubMed]
Sudheesh K,Duggappa DR,Nethra SS, How to write a research proposal? Indian journal of anaesthesia. 2016 Sep;     [PubMed]
Spieth PM,Kubasch AS,Penzlin AI,Illigens BM,Barlinn K,Siepmann T, Randomized controlled trials - a matter of design. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2016;     [PubMed]
McLeroy KR,Norton BL,Kegler MC,Burdine JN,Sumaya CV, Community-based interventions. American journal of public health. 2003 Apr;     [PubMed]
Haidich AB, Meta-analysis in medical research. Hippokratia. 2010 Dec;     [PubMed]
Charrois TL, Systematic reviews: what do you need to know to get started? The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy. 2015 Mar-Apr;     [PubMed]
Hansen M,O'Brien K,Meckler G,Chang AM,Guise JM, Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ. 2016 Jul;     [PubMed]
Simundić AM, Bias in research. Biochemia medica. 2013;     [PubMed]
Budgell B, Guidelines to the writing of case studies. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 2008 Dec;     [PubMed]
Tenny S,Varacallo M, Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) 2018 Jan;     [PubMed]

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