Gilbert Syndrome


Article Author:
Viveksandeep Thoguluva Chandrasekar


Article Editor:
Savio John


Editors In Chief:
William Gossman


Managing Editors:
Avais Raja
Orawan Chaigasame
Carrie Smith
Abdul Waheed
Khalid Alsayouri
Kyle Blair
Trevor Nezwek
Radia Jamil
Erin Hughes
Patrick Le
Anoosh Zafar Gondal
Saad Nazir
William Gossman
Hassam Zulfiqar
Navid Mahabadi
Hussain Sajjad
Steve Bhimji
Muhammad Hashmi
John Shell
Matthew Varacallo
Heba Mahdy
Ahmad Malik
Sarosh Vaqar
Mark Pellegrini
James Hughes
Beata Beatty
Daniyal Ameen
Altif Muneeb
Beenish Sohail
Nazia Sadiq
Hajira Basit
Phillip Hynes
Komal Shaheen
Sandeep Sekhon


Updated:
4/11/2019 10:55:28 PM

Introduction

Gilbert syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism leading to decreased glucuronidation of bilirubin. Augustin Nicolas Gilbert first described the condition in 1901. It is also called Meulengracht disease or constitutional hepatic dysfunction or familial nonhemolytic jaundice. It is generally a benign condition characterized by recurrent episodes of jaundice. Patients are usually asymptomatic, except for the finding of icterus or jaundice. No treatment is usually necessary.[1][2][3][4]

Etiology

The episodes of jaundice can be triggered by several factors such as fasting, dehydration, inter-current illnesses, overexertion, stress, hemolysis or menstruation. By reducing the total calorie intake to 400 Kcal per day or being on a normocaloric diet without lipids, these patients can have a rise in plasma bilirubin concentration up to three times normal within 48 hours. The plasma bilirubin returns to normal levels within 24 hours of having a normal diet. Several theories have been postulated for this, which include increased cycling of the bilirubin by enterohepatic circulation, decreased conjugation due to a decrease in the levels of UDP-glucuronic acid which is a co-substrate in glucuronidation and also an increased bilirubin load which is released from the adipocytes.

Epidemiology

It has been reported that the prevalence of Gilbert syndrome is between 4% and 16% in different populations. During adolescence, there is a change in the sex steroid concentration which affects the bilirubin metabolism which leads to increased bilirubin levels. Hence, most patients with Gilbert syndrome present during puberty. It is also more commonly seen in males due to a higher level of daily production of bilirubin.

Pathophysiology

Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a group of enzymes which help with the glucuronidation of various chemicals in the body for metabolism and excretion. UGT1A1 is the enzyme which is responsible for the conjugation of glucuronic acid with bilirubin for the metabolism of bilirubin. UGT1A1 conjugates glucuronic acid to bilirubin and converts it into a water-soluble substance which can be excreted in bile. More than 100 mutations have been implicated in the causation of Gilbert syndrome, but the two most common genotype among Caucasians is the homozygous polymorphism of two extra bases (TA) in the TATAA box sequence of the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene. The extra bases reduce the affinity of the binding protein to the TATAA box causing reduced gene expression. This results in a 10% to 35% reduction in the UGT1A1 enzyme activity. Patients manifest this syndrome only when they are generally homozygous for this mutation, and hence, it is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. It has been estimated that up to 9% to 10% of the general population of the Western world is homozygous to the variant promoter and up to 42% of the population is heterozygous.[5][6]

Histopathology

The liver appears normal except for mild non-specific accumulation of lipofuscin pigment in the centrilobular zones. There are other mild abnormalities which can be seen in electron microscopy.

Toxicokinetics

Bilirubin-UGT is involved in the metabolism of estrogen and several other drugs through glucuronidation. Hence, individuals with Gilbert syndrome may be susceptible to toxicities from these substances that require glucuronidation for metabolism. Irinotecan is one of the well-known medications with increased toxicity in patients with Gilbert syndrome. The active metabolite SN-38 can get accumulated and lead to diarrhea in these patients. Atazanavir and Indinavir are an anti-retroviral medication (HIV protease inhibitors) which can increase bilirubin level by decreasing the activity of UGT. Acetaminophen and tolbutamide are two other medications which require glucuronidation although their clinical significance is unclear in these individuals. Accumulation of these drugs can lead to toxicities theoretically, but avoidance of these drugs is not recommended currently. Studies on acetaminophen in Gilbert syndrome individuals have shown that intravenous administration leads to decreased glucuronidation but not with oral administration.

History and Physical

Most patients with Gilbert syndrome are usually asymptomatic except for intermittent episodes of jaundice. They usually appear first during adolescence due to changes in the concentration of sex steroids. When Gilbert syndrome occurs in combination with other diseases like hereditary spherocytosis, glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency, breastfeeding, thalassemia or other conditions which can increase unconjugated bilirubin levels, they may potentiate the increase in the level of bilirubin. Although Gilbert syndrome can cause mild to moderate hyperbilirubinemia in neonates in the absence of any superimposed hemolytic disease, it does not cause significant elevation of unconjugated bilirubin in neonates to cause kernicterus. It has, however, been reported to cause worsening neonatal jaundice when associated with other hemolytic conditions which can lead to kernicterus. Some patients may have complaints like malaise, fatigue, nausea, anxiety, loss of appetite, and abdominal discomfort but studies have not shown any correlation with these symptoms and the bilirubin levels.

Evaluation

The only significant laboratory abnormality in patients with Gilbert syndrome is increased unconjugated bilirubin levels, and they are usually below 3 mg/dL with less than 20% of the bilirubin levels being conjugated. When associated with other pathological conditions which increase hemolysis, the level can be higher, but even then it is usually below 6 mg/dL. The diagnosis can be presumed with elevated unconjugated bilirubin levels on repeat testing with normal complete blood count, reticulocyte count, LDH, peripheral smear and normal levels of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase. Of note, fasting serum bile acids are normal. There is no role for any imaging modalities in the absence of any other laboratory abnormalities. Provocative tests such as 48-hour fast, observing a rise in bilirubin concentration after a low-lipid and low-calorie diet or after intravenous administration of nicotinic acid (which raises the osmotic fragility of red blood cells), observing a fall in serum bilirubin level on taking phenobarbitone (which induces the hepatic conjugating enzyme) can be considered but they are usually not performed.[7][8][4][9]

Genetic testing can be used for confirmation when the diagnosis is difficult otherwise. They can be tested by using polymerase chain reaction or DNA-fragment sequencing for DNA mutations in UGT1A1 gene.

Treatment / Management

There is no specific treatment required for patients with Gilbert syndrome as they are usually asymptomatic. Recognition of the disorder and discussion of the mode of inheritance is more important to avoid unnecessary testing in the patient and family members. In patients with co-existing disorders with increased bilirubin levels, phenobarbital can be used to decrease the bilirubin level by inducing the UGTs.

Pearls and Other Issues

Bilirubin is known to exert an anti-oxidant effect, and in individuals with mildly increased bilirubin levels such as Gilbert syndrome, it may offer a protective effect due to that. Patients with Gilbert syndrome have a lower incidence of ischemic heart disease due to decreased production of advanced glycation end products which prevents endothelial dysfunction and reduces progression of atherosclerosis. Studies have also shown a reduction in the incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma, endometrial cancer, and cancer-related mortality when compared to the general population. In fact, the all-cause mortality rate is lower in individuals with mild hyperbilirubinemia due to Gilbert syndrome compared to the general population. In overweight children who develop the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the mean bilirubin levels were lower compared to those children who did not develop NAFLD. Gilbert syndrome patients are also at an increased risk of developing pigment gallstones (cholelithiasis), and especially in patients with other disorders of hemolysis like thalassemia, Sickle cell disease, and hereditary spherocytosis.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Gilbert syndrome may be encountered by the primary care provider, nurse practitioner, emergency department physician, internist and the gastroenterologist. It is important for these healthcare workers to know that the syndrome is benign.

There is no specific treatment required for patients with Gilbert syndrome as they are usually asymptomatic. Recognition of the disorder and discussion of the mode of inheritance is more important to avoid unnecessary testing in the patient and family members. In patients with co-existing disorders with increased bilirubin levels, phenobarbital can be used to decrease the bilirubin level by inducing the UGTs.[10]


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Gilbert Syndrome - Questions

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An infant is found to be jaundiced 2 months after delivery. During the first month, he was placed under ultraviolet light but remained jaundiced. Blood work reveals that he has an elevated level of unconjugated bilirubin. Otherwise, the infant is healthy. What is the most likely diagnosis?



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A patient with Gilbert syndrome will have which laboratory feature?



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A 14-year-old boy presents with yellowish discoloration of the eyes. He claims to have had the same problem many times before. On examination he is otherwise healthy with no abnormal findings, except icterus. What is the most likely diagnosis?



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A 16-year-old star hockey player presents for a sports physical. It is normal except that he is icteric. His family reports this happening occasionally. Which of the following will be most likely?



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A 27 year old male complains of intermittent episodes where his eyes turn yellow. He denies any history of nausea, vomiting, IV drug abuse, transfusions, abdominal pain, or changes in his urine or stool. He takes no medications and rarely drinks small amounts of alcohol. His vital signs are normal and his exam is normal except for minimal scleral icterus. Labs show a total bilirubin of 2.5 mg/dL, direct bilirubin 0.2 mg/dL, with normal alkaline phosphatase, AST, ALT, and CBC. Select the most likely diagnosis.



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A patient is suspected to have Gilbert syndrome. He has isolated mild elevation of unconjugated bilirubin with the rest of the liver functions and CBC being normal. What is the best management for this patient?



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What is the most common inherited cause of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia?



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An asymptomatic patient is noted to have elevated unconjugated bilirubin on a routine chemistry screen. Liver function tests are normal. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?



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A 34-year-old male with a 2-day history of an upper respiratory infection. Physical examination is unremarkable except for mild yellowish discoloration of sclerae. Lab values are normal. What is the likely mechanism of the underlying condition?



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A 25-year-old fourth-year medical student is three weeks into his surgery rotation when his senior resident tells him that his eyes look yellow. He experienced his first needle stick injury in the operating room 3 days ago and is worried about hepatitis. He has been under stress recently at work and has not been eating regularly. He has never had this presentation before. What is the most likely cause of his jaundice?



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Which of the following statements about Gilbert syndrome is false?



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Which of the following laboratory features are characteristic of Gilbert syndrome?



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Gilbert Syndrome - References

References

Kamal S,Abdelhakam S,Ghoraba D,Massoud Y,Aziz KA,Hassan H,Hafez T,Abdel Sallam A, The frequency, clinical course, and health related quality of life in adults with Gilbert's syndrome: a longitudinal study. BMC gastroenterology. 2019 Feb 4;     [PubMed]
Bale G,Avanthi US,Padaki NR,Sharma M,Duvvur NR,Vishnubhotla VRK, Incidence and Risk of Gallstone Disease in Gilbert's Syndrome Patients in Indian Population. Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology. 2018 Dec;     [PubMed]
Qian JD,Hou FQ,Wang TL,Shao C,Wang GQ, Gilbert syndrome combined with prolonged jaundice caused by contrast agent: Case report. World journal of gastroenterology. 2018 Apr 7;     [PubMed]
Fargo MV,Grogan SP,Saguil A, Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults. American family physician. 2017 Feb 1;     [PubMed]
Pasha YZ,Kacho MA,Niaki HA,Tarighati M,Alaee E, The Association between Prolonged Jaundice and TATA Box Dinucleotide Repeats in Gilbert's Syndrome. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 2017 Sep;     [PubMed]
Jiang J,Wang HG,Wu WL,Peng XX, Mixed Dubin-Gilbert Syndrome: A Compound Heterozygous Phenotype of Two Novel Variants in {i}ABCC2{/i} Gene. Chinese medical journal. 2017 Apr 20;     [PubMed]
Gazzin S,Masutti F,Vitek L,Tiribelli C, The molecular basis of jaundice: An old symptom revisited. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2017 Aug;     [PubMed]
Memon N,Weinberger BI,Hegyi T,Aleksunes LM, Inherited disorders of bilirubin clearance. Pediatric research. 2016 Mar;     [PubMed]
Tanoglu A,Artis T,Donmez R,Kargi A,Sit M,Aslan S,Yazar S,Beyazit Y,Polat KY, Liver transplantation from living donors with Gilbert's syndrome is a safe procedure for both donors and recipients. Clinical transplantation. 2015 Nov;     [PubMed]
Erlinger S,Arias IM,Dhumeaux D, Inherited disorders of bilirubin transport and conjugation: new insights into molecular mechanisms and consequences. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jun;     [PubMed]

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